List of crimes for which Medvedev and Putin cannot be tried

List of crimes for which Medvedev and Putin cannot be tried

A bill on guarantees of the immunity of the former president was submitted to the State Duma. It will bring the federal law into line with the latest version of the Russian Constitution (adopted by a vote in the summer of 2020). The document not only complicates the procedure for depriving the former president of immunity, but also actually allows the former head of state to commit some crimes after his resignation.

After the adoption of this bill, both the current and the former president can be deprived of immunity only for grave and especially grave crimes. That is, all crimes of small and medium gravity, committed by the former president of Russia, will remain unpunished. Meduza re-read the Criminal Code and wrote out most of the crimes that could theoretically get away with Dmitry Medvedev and Vladimir Putin. Moreover, we are talking about both past and future deeds.

Crimes against life and health
Murder committed in passion (v. 107)
Murder committed in excess of the limits of necessary defense (Art.108)
Causing death by negligence (Article 109)
Driving a person to suicide or attempted suicide (part 1 of article 110)
Inclination to commit suicide (part 1 and part 3 of Art. 110¹)
Facilitating suicide (Art.110 Part 2 and Part 3)
Intentional infliction of medium-gravity harm to health (Article 112)
Infliction of grave or moderate harm to health in a state of passion (Article 113)
Causing serious or moderate harm to health when the limits of necessary defense are exceeded (Article 114)
Intentional infliction of slight harm to health (Article 115)
Beating (Art. 116)
Torment (part 1 of article 117)
Causing grievous bodily harm through negligence (Article 118)
Threats of murder or grievous bodily harm (Article 119)
Coercion to remove human organs or tissues for transplantation (Article 120)
Infection with a venereal disease (Art. 121)
Infection with HIV (part 1, part 2 and part 4 of article 122)
Obstruction of the provision of medical care (art.124¹)
Leaving in danger (Art. 125)

Crimes against freedom, honor and dignity of the person
Kidnapping (part 1 of article 126)
Unlawful deprivation of liberty (parts 1 and 2 of article 127)
Use of slave labor (Part 1 of Art. 127²)
Libel (art. 128¹)

Crimes against sexual inviolability and sexual freedom of the person
Compulsion to conduct of a sexual nature (Art. 133)
Sexual intercourse and other actions of a sexual nature with a person under the age of sixteen (part 1 of article 134)
Depraved actions (part 1 of article 135)

Crimes against constitutional human and civil rights and freedoms
Discrimination (art. 136)
Violation of privacy (art. 137)
Violation of secrecy of correspondence, telephone conversations, postal, telegraph or other messages (Article 138)
Illegal circulation of special technical means intended for secretly obtaining information (Article 138¹)
Violation of the inviolability of the home (Article 139)
Obstruction of the exercise of electoral rights or the work of election commissions (art. 141)
Violation of the procedure for financing the election campaign (Article 141¹)
Illegal issuance and receipt of a ballot paper, a ballot paper for a referendum, a ballot paper for an all-Russian vote (Art. 142²)
Obstruction of the legitimate professional activities of journalists (parts 1 and 2 of article 144)
Violation of copyright and related rights (parts 1 and 2 of article 146)
Infringement of inventive and patent rights (Art. 147)
Violation of the right to freedom of conscience and religion (Article 148)
Obstruction of a meeting, meeting, demonstration, procession, picketing or participation in them (Art. 149)

Crimes against family and minors
Involvement of a minor in the commission of a crime (part 1 of article 150)
Involvement of a minor in the commission of antisocial acts (part 1 and part 2 of article 151)
Retail sale of alcoholic beverages to minors (Art. 151¹)
Involvement of a minor in the commission of acts that pose a danger to the life of a minor (Art. 151²)
Substitution of a child committed from mercenary or other base motives (Article 153)
Illegal adoption (adoption) (Article 154)
Failure to fulfill the duties of raising a minor (Article 156)
Failure to pay funds for the maintenance of children or disabled parents (Article 157)

Property crimes
Theft (part 1 and part 2 of article 158)
Fraud (part 1, part 2 and part 5 of article 159)
Credit fraud (part 1 and part 2 of Art.159¹)
Fraud in receiving payments (part 1 and part 2 of Art. 159²)
Fraud using electronic means of payment (part 1 and part 2 of article 159³)
Fraud in the field of insurance (part 1 and part 2 of article 159⁵)
Fraud in the field of computer information (part 1 and part 2 of article 159⁶)
Misappropriation or waste (part 1 and part 2 of article 160)
Robbery (part 1 of article 161)
Extortion (part 1 of article 163)
Causing property damage by deception or breach of trust (Article 165)
Unlawful seizure of a car or other vehicle without the purpose of theft (part 1 of article 166)
Intentional destruction or damage to property (Article 167)
Destruction or damage to property by negligence (Article 168)

Crimes in the field of economic activity
Illegal business (art. 171)
Production, purchase, storage, transportation or sale of goods and products without labeling and (or) applying information provided for by the legislation of the Russian Federation (part 1, part 1¹, part 3 and part 5 of article 171¹)
Illegal organization and conduct of gambling (parts 1 and 2 of Art. 171²)
Illegal production and (or) circulation of ethyl alcohol, alcoholic and alcohol-containing products (Art. 171³)
Illegal retail sale of alcoholic and alcohol-containing food products (Article 171⁴)
Illegal banking (part 1 of article 172)
Illegal formation (creation, reorganization) of a legal entity (Art. 173¹)
Illegal use of documents for the formation (creation, reorganization) of a legal entity (Art. 173²)
Legalization (laundering) of funds or other property acquired by other persons in a criminal way (part 1, part 2 and part 3 of article 174)
Legalization (laundering) of funds or other property acquired by a person as a result of a crime committed by him (part 1, part 2 and part 3 of Art. 174¹)
Acquisition or sale of property, knowingly obtained by criminal means (part 1 and part 2 of article 175)
Unlawful receipt of a loan (Article 176)
Malicious evasion of accounts payable (Article 177)
Restriction of competition (part 1 of article 178)
Coercion to complete a transaction or refuse to complete it (part 1 of article 179)
Illegal use of means of individualization of goods (works, services) (part 1, part 2 and part 3 of article 180)
Illegal receipt and disclosure of information constituting commercial, tax or banking secrets (part 1, part 2 and part 3 of article 183)
Unlawful influence on the result of an official sports competition or spectacular commercial competition (part 1 of article 184)
Market manipulation (part 1 of article 185³)
Unlawful use of insider information (part 1 of article 185⁶)
Illegal export from the Russian Federation or transfer of raw materials, materials, equipment, technologies, scientific and technical information, illegal performance of work (provision of services) that can be used to create weapons of mass destruction, weapons and military equipment (parts 1 and 2 Article 189)
Illegal circulation of amber, jade or other semi-precious stones, precious metals, precious stones or pearls (part 1, part 2, part 4 of article 191)
Acquisition, storage, transportation, processing for the purpose of marketing or marketing of knowingly illegally harvested timber (Article 191¹)
Acquisition, storage, transportation, processing for the purpose of marketing or marketing of knowingly illegally harvested timber (Article 191¹)
Performing currency transactions to transfer funds in foreign currency or the currency of the Russian Federation to the accounts of non-residents using forged documents (part 1 and part 2 of article 193¹)
Evasion of payment of customs payments levied from an organization or an individual (parts 1 and 2 of article 194)
Smuggling of cash and (or) monetary instruments (Art. 200¹)
Smuggling of alcoholic beverages and (or) tobacco products (part 1 of Art. 200²)

Crimes against the interests of service in commercial and other organizations
Commercial bribery (part 1, part 2, part 5 and part 6 of Art.204)
Mediation in commercial bribery (part 1 and part 2 of Art.204¹)
Petty commercial bribery (Article 204²)

Public Safety Crimes
Public calls for terrorist activities, public justification of terrorism or propaganda of terrorism (Part 1 of Art. 205²)
Failure to report a crime (art. 205⁶)
Knowingly false reporting of an act of terrorism (part 1 and part 2 of article 207)
Public dissemination of knowingly false information about circumstances posing a threat to the life and safety of citizens (Art.207¹)
Public dissemination of knowingly false socially significant information, which entailed grave consequences (Article 207²)
Calls for riots or participation in them, as well as calls for violence against citizens (part 3 of article 212)
Hooliganism (part 1 of article 213)
Vandalism (Art. 214)
Decommissioning of life support facilities (part 1 and part 2 of Art. 215²)
Unlawful entry into a guarded object (Art.215⁴)
Illegal handling of nuclear materials or radioactive substances (part 1 and part 2 of article 220)
Theft or extortion of nuclear materials or radioactive substances (part 1 of article 221)
Illegal acquisition, transfer, sale, storage, transportation or carrying of weapons, their main parts, ammunition (part 1 of article 222)
Illegal acquisition, transfer, sale, storage, transportation or carrying of explosives or explosive devices (part 1 of article 222¹)
Illegal manufacture of weapons (Article 223)
Negligent possession of firearms (Article 224)

Crimes against public health and public morals
Illegal acquisition, storage, transportation, manufacture, processing of narcotic drugs, psychotropic substances or their analogues, as well as illegal acquisition, storage, transportation of plants containing narcotic drugs or psychotropic substances, or their parts containing narcotic drugs or psychotropic substances (part 1 Article 228)
Illegal acquisition, storage or transportation of precursors of narcotic drugs or psychotropic substances, as well as illegal acquisition, storage or transportation of plants containing precursors of narcotic drugs or psychotropic substances, or their parts containing precursors of narcotic drugs or psychotropic substances (Article 228³)
Illegal production, sale or shipment of precursors of narcotic drugs or psychotropic substances, as well as illegal sale or shipment of plants containing precursors of narcotic drugs or psychotropic substances, or parts thereof containing precursors of narcotic drugs or psychotropic substances (Part 1 of Art.228.)
Induction to the consumption of narcotic drugs, psychotropic substances or their analogs (part 1 of article 230)
Illegal cultivation of plants containing narcotic drugs or psychotropic substances or their precursors (part 1 of article 231)
Organization or maintenance of dens or the systematic provision of premises for the consumption of narcotic drugs, psychotropic substances or their analogues (Part 1 of Art.232)
Illegal issuance or forgery of prescriptions or other documents giving the right to receive narcotic drugs or psychotropic substances (Article 233)
Illegal circulation of strong or poisonous substances for marketing purposes (part 1 and part 2 of article 234)
Illegal implementation of medical or pharmaceutical activities (Article 235)
Illegal production of medicines and medical devices (part 1 of article 235¹)
Circulation of counterfeit, substandard and unregistered medicines, medical devices and circulation of counterfeit dietary supplements (part 1 of Art.238¹)
Creation of a non-profit organization that infringes upon the personality and rights of citizens (Article 239)
Involvement in prostitution (part 1 of article 240)
Receiving sexual services from a minor (Art.240¹)
Organization of prostitution (part 1 of article 241)
Illegal production and circulation of pornographic materials or objects (part 1 and part 2 of article 242)
Destruction or damage of cultural heritage objects (historical and cultural monuments) of the peoples of the Russian Federation included in the unified state register of cultural heritage objects (historical and cultural monuments) of the peoples of the Russian Federation, identified cultural heritage objects, natural complexes, objects taken under state protection, or cultural values (part 1 of article 243)
Illegal search and (or) removal of archaeological objects from the places of occurrence (part 1 and part 2 of article 243²)
Destruction or damage of military graves, as well as monuments, steles, obelisks, other memorial structures or objects that perpetuate the memory of those killed in the defense of the Fatherland or its interests, or dedicated to the days of military glory of Russia (Article 243⁴)
Desecration of the bodies of the dead and the places of their burial (Article 244)
Cruelty to animals (Article 245)

Environmental crimes
Water pollution (Art. 250)
Air pollution (art. 251)
Pollution of the marine environment (Art. 252)
Violation of the legislation of the Russian Federation on the continental shelf and on the exclusive economic zone of the Russian Federation (Article 253)
Damage to the earth (v. 254)
Violation of the rules for the protection and use of subsurface resources (Article 255)
Illegal extraction (catch) of aquatic biological resources (Art. 256)
Violation of the rules for the protection of aquatic biological resources (Article 257)
Illegal hunting (art. 258)
Illegal extraction and circulation of especially valuable wild animals and aquatic biological resources belonging to the species included in the Red Book of the Russian Federation and (or) protected by international treaties of the Russian Federation (part 1 and part 1¹ of article 258¹)
Destruction of critical habitats for organisms listed in the Red Book of the Russian Federation (Article 259)
Illegal felling of forest plantations (parts 1 and 2 of article 260)
Destruction or damage of forest plantations (i. 1 and part 2 of article 261)
Violation of the regime of specially protected natural areas and natural objects (Article 262)

Crimes against traffic safety and transport operation
Violation of the rules of the road and the operation of vehicles (part 1, part 2, part 3, part 5 of article 264)
Destruction of vehicles or means of communication (Article 267)
Committing hooligan motives of actions that threaten the safe operation of vehicles (Art.267¹)
Violation of the rules ensuring the safe operation of transport (Article 268)

Crimes in the field of computer information
Unlawful access to computer information (part 1, part 2 and part 3 of article 272)
Creation, use and distribution of malicious computer programs (part 1 and part 2 of article 273)
Violation of the rules for the operation of means of storage, processing or transmission of computer information and information and telecommunication networks (Art.274)
Unlawful influence on the critical information infrastructure of the Russian Federation (part 1 of article 274¹)

Crimes against the foundations of the constitutional system and state security
Public calls to carry out extremist activities (Article 280)
Public calls for the implementation of actions aimed at violating the territorial integrity of the Russian Federation (Art.280¹)
Incitement to hatred or enmity, as well as humiliation of human dignity (part 1 of article 282)
Disclosure of state secrets (part 1 of article 283)
Unlawful receipt of information constituting a state secret (part 1 of article 283¹)
Loss of documents containing state secrets (Article 284)

Crimes against state power, interests of civil service and service in local self-government bodies
Taking a bribe (part 1 of article 290)
Giving a bribe (part 1 and part 2 of article 291)
Mediation in bribery (part 1 of article 291¹)
Petty bribery (art. 291²)

Crimes against justice
Obstruction of justice and preliminary investigation (Art.294)
Threats or violent actions in connection with the administration of justice or the production of a preliminary investigation (part 1, part 2 and part 3 of article 296)
Disrespect for the court (Art. 297)
Defamation against a judge, juror, prosecutor, investigator, person conducting the inquiry, an employee of the compulsory enforcement bodies of the Russian Federation (Article 298¹)
Coercion to testify (part 1 of article 302)
Knowingly false denunciation (part 1 and part 2 of article 306)
Knowingly false testimony, expert opinion, specialist or incorrect translation (Article 307)
Refusal of witness or victim to testify (Article 308)
Bribery or coercion to testify or evade testimony or to incorrect translation (part 1, part 2 and part 3 of article 309)
Disclosure of data from preliminary investigation (Art. 310)
Concealment of crimes (Art. 316)

Crimes against the order of administration
Use of violence against a government official (part 1 of article 318)
Insulting a government official (Article 319)
Disclosure of information on security measures applied to an official of a law enforcement or regulatory body (Article 320)
Illegal crossing of the State border of the Russian Federation (part 1 of article 322)
Organization of illegal migration (part 1 of article 322¹)
Fictitious registration of a citizen of the Russian Federation at the place of stay or at the place of residence in a residential building in the Russian Federation and fictitious registration of a foreign citizen or stateless person at the place of residence in a residential building in the Russian Federation (Art. 322²)
Illegal change of the State border of the Russian Federation (Article 323)
Purchase or sale of official documents and state awards (Article 324)
Theft or damage to documents, stamps, seals or theft of excise stamps, special stamps or conformity marks (Article 325)
Unlawful seizure of the state registration plate of a vehicle (Art. 325¹)
Forgery or destruction of the vehicle identification number (Article 326)
Forgery, manufacture or circulation of forged documents, state awards, stamps, seals or letterheads (Art. 327)
Production, sale or use of counterfeit excise stamps, special stamps or conformity marks (part 1 and part 2 of article 327¹)
Forgery of documents for medicines or medical devices or packaging of medicines or medical devices (Part 1 and Part 2 of Art. 327²)
Desecration of the State Emblem of the Russian Federation or the State Flag of the Russian Federation (Article 329)
Arbitrariness (Article 330)
Malicious evasion of duties defined by the legislation of the Russian Federation on non-profit organizations performing the functions of a foreign agent (Article 330¹)
Failure to comply with the obligation to submit a notification that a citizen of the Russian Federation has citizenship (nationality) of a foreign state or a residence permit or other valid document confirming the right to his permanent residence in a foreign state (Art. 330²)

Crimes against the peace and security of mankind
Public calls to unleash an aggressive war (Article 354)
Rehabilitation of Nazism (Article 354¹)

 

Russian Private Military Companies in Operations, Competition, and Conflict

The Asymmetric Warfare Group (AWG) supported the Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory (JHU/APL) to break down the wonder of Russian private military organizations (PMCs), the situations under which they would matter to U.S. Armed force move commandants, and whether they comprise a one of a kind danger to U.S. furthermore, accomplice powers.

The essential crowd for this investigation is U.S. Armed force move administrators and their staffs, yet the discoveries and experiences ought to likewise be valuable for anybody in the U.S. public security and protection networks worried about deviated activities of the Russian Federation around the globe. To begin with, this examination presents key discoveries from profound jump exploration and investigation on Russian PMCs introduced in the supplement. It tends to their utilizations, hardware, preparing, faculty, state contribution, legitimate issues, and other related subjects. Second, these discoveries are utilized to advise a scientific model to investigate the operational difficulties and contemplations Russian PMCs could present to U.S. Armed force move officers.

Key Findings

Primary concern Up Front: Russian PMCs are utilized as a power multiplier to accomplish targets for both government and Russia-adjusted private interests while limiting both political and military expenses. While Moscow keeps on considering the to be of Russian PMCs as helpful, their utilization likewise presents a few weaknesses that present both operational and key dangers to Russian Federation targets.

Well disposed Regime Support: Russian administrators see Russian PMCs as an instrument to prop up benevolent systems under danger of breakdown or ouster. Russian PMCs work:

• Alongside and installed with well disposed state militaries.

• With non-state outfitted gatherings in hostile battle tasks.

Hostile Role: While likewise utilized for help undertakings more ordinary of military and security temporary workers, Russian PMCs have had an articulated part in hostile battle tasks.

Moving Control: The order and control (C2) of Russian PMCs isn’t steady in all operational settings.

• Sometimes Russian PMCs fall under the C2 of the Russian Ministry of Defense (MoD) or Russian insight offices.

• At different occasions, PMCs fall under the C2 of accomplice governments or adjusted private interests.

Conflicting Capabilities: The nature of staff and materiel empowering Russian PMCs is conflicting. Russian PMC capacities in faculty, preparing, and hardware have all the earmarks of being more noteworthy when a PMC is firmly lined up with state uphold from the Russian MoD.

Casual by Design: Despite administrative endeavors to authorize PMCs, Russian law proceeds to officially prohibit their creation and bars people from going along with them under enemy of hired soldier laws. Notwithstanding, Russian pioneers utilize this legitimate denial to carefully control some PMCs (e.g., the specific capture of PMCs who may introduce homegrown security or political dangers), not to keep PMCs from working.

Weaknesses: The utilization of Russian PMCs presents new operational and key dangers to Moscow. Confidence in Russian PMC units in high-hazard missions seems fragile. Despite the fact that their utilization gives political insurance from the optics of high Russian MoD setbacks, both Russian PMC losses and their get back make novel political and homegrown security hazards. Their utilization additionally confuses interior system legislative issues in Moscow, making rivalry between the MoD and private values that can endanger tasks (see the reference section: Syria). At long last, the equivocalness of operational control and dynamic over Russian PMCs frees Moscow up to the danger of being considered dependable by the global network for activities taken by Russian PMCs under the order of different interests.

Operational Challenges and Considerations Presented by Russian PMCs

Main concern Up Front: Russian PMCs don’t represent a special strategic danger—other state and non-state entertainers are comparably skilled. In any case:

• PMCs can work over the contention continuum and present the United States with predicaments at all degrees of war.

• Challenges Russian PMCs could present in noncombatant departure tasks (NEOs) and peacekeeping activities (PKOs) merit cautious thought

Most Dangerous Scenario: The most hazardous situation including a Russian PMC is one where a U.S. Armed force detachment could experience a state-upheld, contingent strategic gathering (BTG)- like substance with cutting edge weapons, forefront empowering influence advances, and skill:

• With an elevated level of Russian state uphold, a Russian PMC in Syria had the option to work as a semi BTG; it directed fundamental joined arms activities with infantry, reinforcement, and ordnance.

• With the guide of Russian help and powers, separatists in eastern Ukraine led consolidated arms tasks and was exceptionally capable at empowering incorporation, especially data activities (IO), electronic fighting (EW), and automated elevated frameworks (UAS).

In all probability Scenarios: Russian state-upheld PMC activities pointed toward disturbing U.S. tasks during emergency reaction or restricted possibility activities. PMCs may execute the accompanying:

• Occupy potential departure destinations or other key landscape during a NEO.

• Ally with neighborhood entertainers in PKO to give weapons and preparing to bunches contradicted to U.S. activities.

• Provide different types of help, including knowledge and keeping up impact in a given zone.

Other Potential Scenarios: Less serious situations exist where Russian PMCs could look to contend with and sabotage U.S. impact with neighborhood specialists and regular citizens.

Russian PMCs are known, affirmed, and associated with being available and working in various nations across eastern and focal Europe, the Middle East, Africa, and somewhere else. This addendum subtleties accessible data concerning Russian PMC exercises in known or suspected AOs to illuminate the examination contained in the body of this report.

Syria, Ukraine, the CAR, and Sudan are talked about top to bottom, enumerating the utilizations and different credits of Russian PMCs in each AO. Different AOs talked about finally are Yemen, Libya, Nigeria, and Venezuela. Different nations where Russian PMCs are claimed to have worked are likewise referenced and quickly talked about.

Unmistakable Intervention in Syria

The appearance of the Russian Federation’s conventional military inclusion in September 2015 started noteworthy development in the hostile utilization of Russian PMCs in Syria and focused a more splendid light on the activities of Wagner, which served a function in Ukraine up until that point that was more enthusiastically for eyewitnesses to recognize from different entertainers in the contention. Russian PMCs were dynamic in Syria a long time before Russia’s proper intercession—Wagner since fall 2014 or earlier,190 and the Slavonic Corps in 2013. Notwithstanding, the proper utilization of power brought a flood of Russian PMC faculty and started a period interspersed by a few fights where Russian PMCs assumed a huge job—essentially Wagner, on occasion passing by the name “OSM” as indicated by some press reports.

In late 2013, Ukraine was required to consent to an affiliation arrangement with the European Union (EU). Notwithstanding, this would have blocked the nation from participation in the Russia-drove Eurasian Economic Union (EEU), so Moscow forced heightening monetary backlashes and dangers on Kyiv, to the point that Ukrainian President Viktor Yanukovych declared an unexpected inversion. The declaration started the Euromaidan development—a long arrangement of favorable to Western, against Russian fights and conflicts from late 2013 to mid 2014 in Kyiv and across western Ukraine—which, in spite of endeavors by Moscow, eliminated Yanukovych from office. Russia reacted with military activities to attack and addition the Crimean Peninsula and backing dissident powers in eastern Ukraine.

Asserted Use on the Crimean Peninsula

In late February 2014, Russian unique powers work force in plain outfits showed up in Crimea and assumed responsibility for certain administration, air terminal, and different offices. Metaphorically alluded to as “amiable individuals” or “minimal green men,” these formally unattributed powers worked close by other military arrangements to immobilize Ukrainian powers and inevitably assume full responsibility for the landmass. A few open source reports charge that RussianPMCs took an interest in the activities prompting the addition of Crimea (explicitly an early cycle of Wagner that was at the time a casual gathering of Slavonic Corps leftovers with local people and others). By and by, the degree or veracity of a Russian PMC function in the intrusion of Crimea isn’t affirmed, and there gives off an impression of being no immediate proof accessible to check these cases. Russian Cossack units, notwithstanding, assumed a plain function in the occupation as battling powers, monitors at checkpoints, and road implementation to smother fights.

There are a few different nations where Russian PMCs are suspected to be available and working in some limit. Nonetheless, data concerning their utilizations, destinations, and different subtleties is scant. Moreover, separating whether such organizations are working as PSCs in the open market for power, or in the event that they are satisfying any Russian Federation international strategy or security goals, is muddled.

Doctor at Omsk clinic who treated Navalny has surrendered

The appointee head doctor at the Omsk clinic that quickly treated resistance figure Alexey Navalny in August has surrendered “for individual reasons,” as per the news office RIA Novosti. Anatoly Kalinichenko told the site Ngs55.ru that his choice to take an occupation somewhere else is unopinionated and due basically to the way that he’d developed worn out on managerial work. He simply needs to re-visitation of medical procedure, he says.

Navalny was hospitalized at Kalinichenko’s office on August 20 after his departure from Tomsk to Moscow made a crisis arrival in Omsk. While he stayed at the Omsk clinic until the night of August 21, Kalinichenko was the essential wellspring of data for writers giving an account of Navalny’s ailment.

Kalinichenko was one of the medical clinic authorities who asserted that specialists found no hints of toxin in Navalny’s framework and contended that the legislator’s delicate state forestalled his prompt exchange to a superior prepared facility in Berlin.

Deadly – The Chilling Way Vladimir Putin Deals With His Enemies

“The Russian state goes after enemies, traitors, opponents, critics, journalists,” Buzzfeed News’ Heidi Blake told InsideEdition.com. The results are chilling, and often deadly. Blake is the author of “From Russia, With Blood: the Kremlin’s Ruthless Assassination Program and Vladimir Putin’s Secret War on the West.” Her investigative team found Russian links to over a dozen mysterious deaths on English soil, including that of exiled oligarch Boris Berezovsky.

Revealed – Cybersecurity and Infrastructure Security Agency Mail-In Voting in 2020

Presidential Election Day USA 2020. Vote In USA, Banner Design.. Royalty  Free Cliparts, Vectors, And Stock Illustration. Image 142112824.

Page Count: 11 pages
Date: July 28, 2020
Restriction: None
Originating Organization: Cybersecurity and Infrastructure Security Agency, Department of Homeland Security
File Type: pdf
File Size: 577,002 bytes
File Hash (SHA-256): 4018616B3963268F457A9A294BF1A3A04EB90025898BC3C54B4785B048C873BB

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All forms of voting – in this case mail-in voting – bring a variety of cyber and infrastructure risks. Risks to mail-in voting can be managed through various policies, procedures, and controls.
The outbound and inbound processing of mail-in ballots introduces additional infrastructure and technology, which increases the potential scalability of cyber attacks. Implementation of mail-in voting infrastructure and processes within a compressed timeline may also introduce new risk. To address this risk, election officials should focus on cyber risk management activities, including access controls and authentication best practices when implementing expanded mail-in voting.

Integrity attacks on voter registration data and systems represent a comparatively higher risk in a mail-in voting environment when compared to an in-person voting environment. This is because the voter is not present at the time of casting the ballot and cannot help to answer questions regarding their eligibility or identity verification.

Operational risk management responsibility differs with mail-in voting and in-person voting processes. For mail-in voting, some of the risk under the control of election officials during in-person voting shifts to outside entities, such as ballot printers, mail processing facilities, and the United States Postal Service (USPS).

Physical access at election offices and warehouses represents a risk in a mail-in voting environment. Completed ballots are returned to the election office and must be securely stored for days or weeks before processing through voter authentication and tabulation processes. Managing risks to these processes requires implementing secure procedures for storage, access controls, and chain of custody, such as ballot accounting.
Inbound mail-in ballot processes and tabulation take longer than in-person processing, causing tabulation of results to occur more slowly and resulting in more ballots to tabulate following election night. Media, candidates, and voters should expect less comprehensive results on election night, which creates additional risk of electoral uncertainty and confidence in results.

Disinformation risk to mail-in voting infrastructure and processes is similar to that of in-person voting while utilizing different content. Threat actors may leverage limited understanding regarding mail-in voting processes to mislead and confuse the public.

Election infrastructure includes a diverse set of systems, networks, and processes. Mail-in voting is a method of administering elections. When voting by mail, authorized voters receive a ballot in the mail, either automatically or after the application process. In most implementations, the voter marks the ballot, puts the ballot in an envelope, signs an affidavit, and returns the package via mail or by dropping off at a ballot drop box or other designated location.

Currently, five states (Colorado, Hawaii, Oregon, Utah, and Washington) automatically send every registered voter a ballot by mail. At least 21 other states have laws that allow at least some elections to be conducted by mail. In addition to the five states that send every voter a ballot, five states (Arizona, California, Montana, Nevada, and New Jersey) and the District of Columbia (D.C.) allow a voter to apply to receive a mail-in ballot permanently, so that voters do not have to apply each election.1 Currently, 34 states and D.C. allow any registered voter to request a mail-in ballot. There are 16 states that require voters to have an excuse such as temporary absence from the voting district, illness, or disability or require voters to be of a certain age (typically 65+) to be eligible to receive a ballot by mail. Some states are recognizing COVID-19 as a valid excuse.

Although they perform similar functions, mail-in voting processes and infrastructure vary from state to state and often differ even between counties, parishes, towns, or cities within a state or territory. While each state manages and conducts mail-in elections differently based on state and local legal requirements, common risks and mitigations exist across states and implementations.

Voter registration and mail ballot application processing collects data used to determine voter eligibility, the type of ballot a voter receives, the location or address for mailing the ballot to the voter, and whether election officials can accept the ballot. Either an integrity attack or an availability attack on a voter registration system could result in a voter not being able to cast a ballot or a voter’s ballot not being counted. Integrity attacks on voter registration data and systems represents a comparatively higher risk in a mail-in voting environment than an in-person voting environment. This is because the voter is not present at the time of casting the ballot and cannot help to resolve questions regarding eligibility or verification. Mail-in voters whose registration records are altered or deleted in an integrity attack do not have the opportunity to be issued a provisional ballot, which are available to in-person voters.

  • An integrity attack that removed a voter from the voter registration, permanent mail, or absentee ballot request list could result in the voter not receiving a ballot, unless the voter proactively followed up to re-register, re-apply, or if the election official received the ballot as undeliverable and contacted the voter. The impact is that a voter may not receive a ballot or receipt of a ballot may be delayed, resulting in a jurisdiction potentially not accepting a voted ballot. The voter would still possess the ability to vote in person provisionally.
  • An integrity attack on a voter’s name could result in the voter receiving a ballot package that is not addressed to the proper individual. If there was an integrity attack on a voter’s identifying information (i.e., date of birth [DOB], driver’s license number [DL], last four digits of Social Security number [SSN], etc.), the voter’s proof of ID, where required, would not match the voter’s record. The voter would either need to inform the election official and update his or her voter record (assuming that the voter registration deadline has not passed), or risk having their voted ballot rejected upon receipt.
  • An integrity attack on a voter’s ballot mailing address may result in the voter not receiving a ballot, unless the voter proactively updated his or her registration with the correct address, or the election official received the ballot as undeliverable and contacted the voter. This assumes that the voter registration or ballot application deadline has not passed, allowing the voter to update his or her information. The impact is that a voter may not receive a ballot, or receipt of a ballot is delayed.
  • An integrity attack on a voter’s signature on file could result in the voter having the ballot package rejected and their ballot uncounted. If the state is one of the 19 that requires a voter to receive notification when there is a discrepancy with their signature or the signature on the return ballot envelope is missing (a.k.a. “cure process”), the voter may have an opportunity to correct the situation by being notified that the ballot was rejected and taking action to resolve the issue. This can be done by an election official notifying the voter or a voter checking a ballot tracking system, if available.
  • An availability attack on the voter registration database or specific information, such as a list of mail voters, voter names, or addresses could result in the delay of voters receiving their ballots, and further impact voters’ ability to return ballots on time to ensure they are counted. In most states, a ballot may be returned in person, in which case the impact of an availability attack may only affect the outbound process providing a measure of resilience.

Video – Russland: Der Fall Nawalny – Opposition in Gefahr

Die Vergiftung von Oppositionsführer Alexej Nawalny ist nicht der erste Anschlag gegen einen Putin-Kritiker. Politischer Widerstand in Russland kann lebensgefährlich sein.

Regimekritiker Michail Efremow vor dubiosem Moskauer Gericht – 11 Jahre Gefängnis gefordert

Russland: Populärer Schauspieler nach Alkoholfahrt mit tödlichem Ausgang  unter Hausarrest — RT Deutsch

Das Gericht verkündet demnächst ein Urteil über den Regimekritiker & Schauspieler Michail Efremow. Die Staatsanwaltschaft fordert, den Schauspieler wegen eines Unfalls, bei dem der 57-jährige Sergei Zakharov starb, zu 11 Jahren Gefängnis zu verurteilen.

Hintergrund: Mikhail Efremov stürzte am 8. Juni auf dem Smolenskaya-Platz in Moskau betrunken in einen Lada-Van in seinem Grand Cherokee-Jeep. Der Fahrer des Lieferwagens Der 57-jährige Kurier des Delikateska-Online-Shops, Sergei Zakharov, wurde getötet.

Zeugen:

Mikhail Efremov – Schauspieler, Angeklagter

Elman Pashayev – Efremovs Anwalt

Verwandte von Sergei Zakharov – Opfer

Alexander Dobrovinsky – Anwalt für Zakharovs Verwandte

Mehrere Dutzend Journalisten

Zuschauer

Was die Staatsanwaltschaft verlangt: Verurteilung von Yefremov zu 11 Jahren in einer Kolonie des Generalregimes – fast die Höchstdauer nach diesem Artikel des Strafgesetzbuchs. Um einen Führerschein für drei Jahre zu entziehen, zahlen Sie drei Verwandten des Verstorbenen einen Rubel und 500.000 Rubel an Zakharovs ältesten Sohn.

Was die Verteidigung verlangt: Efremov nicht seiner Freiheit zu berauben, ihn in extremen Fällen in eine Koloniesiedlung zu schicken. „11 Jahre sind sehr blutrünstig. Dies ist ein Todesurteil “, sagte Efremov selbst.

Ort und Zeit der Klage: Presnensky Court of Moscow, Beginn der Sitzung – 11:00 Uhr (russische Zeit), 8.9.2020

Nawalny aus Koma geweckt – Deutsch-russisches Verhältnis am Boden

Sein Zustand verbessert sich und er ist wieder ansprechbar: Berliner Ärzte haben den Kremlkritiker Alexej Nawalny aus dem künstlichen Koma geholt. Sein Fall hat inzwischen hohe Wellen geschlagen.