Cryptome – NSA Cyber Commando East Campus Buildings – Original Document

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Inside the U.S.' new state-of-the-art cyberwarfare bunker - CyberScoop
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Satoshi Nakamoto – Bitcoin: A Peer-to-Peer Electronic Cash System – Original Document

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Satoshi Nakamoto | The mysterious founder of Bitcoin | New Scientist
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Report On The Investigation Into Russian Interference – Full Mueller Report

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https://cryptome.org/2020/11/Mueller-Report-Reprocessed.pdf

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Michael Sorkin Dies Of The Coronavirus In New York

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Michael D. Sorkin (born 1948) was an American architect, author, and educator based in New York City. He wass one of the most provocative and polemical voices in contemporary culture and in the design of urban places at the turn of the twenty-first century.

Michael David Sorkin (August 2, 1948 – March 26, 2020) was an American urbanist architect, author, and educator based in New York City.He was considered to be a provocative and polemical voice in contemporary culture and in the design of urban places at the turn of the twenty-first century. In addition to being a noted professor at many great architectural schools, he was an architectural critic for the Village Voice and a guest columnist in many publications.He was director of the urban design graduate program at City College of New York.

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Revealed – District Attorney of New York Fire Hazards, 80 Centre Street, NYC, February 25, 2018

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The Secret Network of Google Founder Larry Page Unveiled

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The Secret Network of Facebook Founder Mark Elliot Zuckerberg Unveiled

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The Secret Network of Amazon Founder Jeff Bezos Exposed

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Day 1 Letter, Jeff Bezos De Shaw, Jeff Bezos Dc House, Jeff Bezos Documentary, Jeff Bezos Degree, Jeff Bezos Email, Jeff Bezos Education, Jeff Bezos Elon Musk, Jeff Bezos Early Life, Jeff Bezos Entrepreneur, Jeff Bezos Exercise, Jeff Bezos Everything Store, Jeff Bezos Executive Assistant, Jeff Bezos Exoskeleton, Jeff Bezos Earnings, Jeff Bezos Family, Jeff Bezos Forbes, Jeff Bezos Facts, Jeff Bezos Favorite Books, Jeff Bezos Foundation, Jeff Bezos Fun Facts, Jeff Bezos Facebook, Jeff Bezos Family Office, Jeff Bezos Fortune, Jeff Bezos First Job, Jeff Bezos Giving Pledge, Jeff Bezos Greek, Jeff Bezos Garage, Jeff Bezos G650, Jeff Bezos Google, Jeff Bezos Goes Grocery Shopping, Jeff Bezos Gif, Jeff Bezos Grandfather, Jeff Bezos Genius, Jeff Bezos Galapagos Yacht, Jeff Bezos Height, Jeff Bezos Home, Jeff Bezos History, Jeff Bezos House Dc, Jeff Bezos Houses, Jeff Bezos House Washington, Jeff Bezos Hobbies, Jeff Bezos Health, Jeff Bezos Heritage, Jeff Bezos Hispanic, Jeff Bezos Interview, 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The Secret Network of Stephen A. Feinberg, Financial Advisor of Donald Trump and Head of Cerberus, Exposed

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The Secret Network of Donald Trumps Financial Advisor John Alfred Paulson exposed

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Exposed ´´US War with North Korea Is No Joke At All`

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War with North Korea: No Joke By John Stanton The 20th Century Korean War from 1950-1953 pitting US-led United Nations coalition forces against the North Korean and Chinese militaries has been in pause mode for 64 years. The Korean Armistice was signed on July 27, 1953 by the United States, China and North Korea. It called for a cessation of hostilities until a lasting peace agreement between the warring parties could be negotiated and signed. That, of course, has not happened due as much to North Korea’s rationally maniacal behavior and ruthless treatment of its citizens, as to its role as a useful pawn of the Chinese and American governments. The Chinese feel compelled to let the incendiary North Korean government in Pyongyang irritate and provoke the United States and much of the world community, and the Americans don’t mind having a large military presence to deter North Korea but also to keep an eye on the China and the Southeast Asian region. China has apparently reinforced its military forces on its border with North Korea. Russia has a short land and maritime border with North Korea. In 2015 officials from the two countries signed an agreement to construct a road connection between the two neighbors during their “Year of Friendship.” According to NK.News.org, North Korea and Russia envisioned “closer collaboration between the two states in political, economic and humanitarian spheres.” As tensions ratchet up in the wake of North Korea’s nuclear weapons and ballistic missile tests, Russia has apparently shored up its military forces near the bustling Russian port city of Vladivostok, home to Russia’s Pacific Fleet and within range of North Korean missiles. US-Led Coalition These military moves by China and Russia make sense if war breaks out between a US-led coalition including South Korea, Japan, Canada, and Australia (for starters) and North Korean forces. The extra forces would likely be used to stanch the tide of North Koreans expected to stream out of North Korea. In the unfortunate circumstance that sees North Korea’s first use of a nuclear weapon, a US retaliatory strike would ensure that the radiologically damaged would seek care in China and Russia, care that China and Russia can ill-afford to provide on a large scale. During a protracted conventional conflict, it seems likely that enterprising organizations in China and Russia would attempt to funnel weapons and aid to the North Koreans to keep the US-led coalition occupied while they ponder their strategic and tactical options. With the US bogged down in Iraq, Syria and Afghanistan, there are many moves that the Chinese and Russians could make contrary to US interests. The political and pundit classes in New York City and Washington, DC believe that the Trump Administration will just kick the Kim Jong-Un tin can down the road for another US president. The same elites told us all that Hillary Clinton would, with great certainty, win the 2016 presidential election. After 100 days of the Trump presidency, they still shake their heads in disbelief. Yet, they seemed to believe fully in President Trump’s punitive April cruise missile strikes in Syria undertaken after a Bashar Al Assad use of a nerve agent on his own citizens. But Trump’s people say that the time for “strategic patience” with North Korea is over. Secretary of State Rex Tillerson, the Perry Como of the US State Department, declared as much during a recent visit to South Korea. Has America’s new Ken and Barbie, Jared Kushner and Ivanka Trump, been advising President Trump on the matter? As for China’s influence, it has warned North Korea not to test Trump even as it recently resumed flights to North Korea from Beijing. Time will tell if China is serious in assisting the US or not. Intellectuals? Beyond the political and pundit classes who grace the world with their intellectual acumen are those across the spectrum who think that North Korea is the way it is because of the policies and practices of the US government. Those outlandish claims should not be seriously entertained. Kim Jong-Un is seen in this video smoking a cigarette and, at one point, sitting at a desk not far from an aircraft runway watching his air force and army in action. It looks a lot like a Monty Python skit until you realize that the North Koreans really believe they are a competent military power. And then there is the North Korean Army’s recent live fire exercise. What kind of commanders and political leaders think that the alignment of this artillery on a beach? The commanders are essentially giving their troops a death sentence as US standoff weapons systems would mostly obliterate such massed artillery. North Korean military doctrine is as obsolete as much of its weaponry is. Still, war is horrible and North Korea would, initially, likely cause a lot of pain to the northern portions of Seoul, South Korea. US, South and North Korean civilian casualties would certainly follow. Pain reduction, not elimination, depends on the lethality of US preemptive missile, bomber and cyber-attacks designed to neutralize what the US-led coalition’s intelligence believes to be the targets most important to hit first. Most likely, both North Korean nuclear weapons testing and medium-long range missile sites would be targeted, simultaneously with other North Korean conventional military assets. Before such a conflict de-confliction lines with China and Russia would have to be opened. The Fight North Korea has to know that if it moves any weapons systems into the open, the heat or electronic emissions will get them killed. US intelligence services have tried hard to anticipate how quickly the North Koreans can load and reload artillery and the extent of their ammunition supplies. Then there are the diesel submarines North Korea has in operation. US military antisubmarine warfare aircraft and detection is the best in the world and the Navy would be quick to begin the search for North Korean submarines. US attack class submarines would have to eliminate the DPRK’s undersea threat very quickly, just as US air forces would be called upon to clear the airspace above North Korea as rapidly as possible. North Korean surface vessels would not do well against US anti-ship weaponry with its advanced guidance systems. On the ground and from the sea, the situation is less clear. North Korea is vulnerable to amphibious landings on both its coastlines on the Yellow Sea and the Sea of Japan. The US Navy and Marine Corps would not attempt such landings until many days into a conflict though. North Korea is said to have sleeper cells in South Korea that would be activated to destroy key communications nodes and other critical infrastructure. North Korean Special Forces are said to be a dangerous threat as in any conflict they would be tasked with infiltrating South Korea to engage in sabotage. It is not known how the North Korean civilian population would respond to an attack. The nation is home to 25 million people who have mostly known nothing but privation and austerity. Of course, that’s the view from the outside. There are tantalizing hints that the civilians there might stay away from the fighting to a limited degree. Books smuggled out of North Korea like The Accusation give a hint of some of the thinking of the well-educated and economically better positioned denizens. But the US experience with insurgencies from Vietnam until the present have not been pleasant, successful affairs. At any rate, the “will” of the North Korean population would play a significant role in a protracted conflict. Some argue that the US should learn from its 20th Century Korean War experience. But comparisons are invalid. The conflict took place as the US was drawing down from World War II and cold political winds were blowing. Since that time the North Koreans have spent a lot of time training to fight but have not been engaged in protracted conflicts for the last two decades as the US has been. There is no substitute for training but when military forces have experience in combat operations and maintain a training regime there is going to be a mismatch at some point favoring the US. Yet another consideration is the Joint Force capabilities of the North Korean military versus the UScoalition interoperability and joint force training. There is no evidence to suggest that North Korea has “networked” its fighting forces to wage war in the cross domains of sea, undersea, land, air, space and cyber. Nor has North Korea conducted extensive training exercises with partner or allies equivalent to Canada, Australia, Japan and South Korea. No One Knows and that Unfinished Business Thing A long term conflict in which the US-led coalition fails to bring North Korea to its knees would allow other nations to make risky moves. Would Russia invade Eastern Ukraine and move up to the Dnieper River? Would China move on Taiwan? Would Turkey move further into Syria? Would Iran move further into Syria and Iraq? Would Russia get more aggressive in Libya? Would Europe further splinter as some members of the European Union back the US while others do not (the UK would fight with the US)? Would the American public support a longer term war effort? Unfortunately, the US, North and South Korea issue is unfinished business. Not too many people on the planet want to see a video of the Kim Jong-Un of the future sitting at his portable desk smoking a cigarette while watching the North Korean “Death to America” ICBM successfully launched and carrying a nuke toward the United States. If that ICBM made in through US missile defenses, the United States nuclear retaliatory response would turn North Korea into a radiological waste-land for decades. No one in the world wants to see that happen either. John Stanton can be reached at jstantonarchangel@gmail.com

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TOP SECRET Congressional Snowden Report

Date: Thu, 22 Dec 2016 10:36:57 -0500
From: “James M. Atkinson” <jmatk[at]tscm.com>
To: TSCM-L Professionals List <tscm-l2006[at]googlegroups.com>
Subject: Congressional Snowden Report

Please see the attached declassified document

https://cryptome.org/2016/12/congress-snowden-report.pdf

as well as the text snipping included as text in this message. It is wise for a TSCM, CyberSecurity, CyberOperations, TEMPEST, or related counter-intelligence, IC specialists to study this report, because it will allow them to spot other spies in thier workplace, and to detect behaviors and equipment usage patterns that will result in the capture of the spy.

I took the PDF document, and performed a text recognition on it, and then copy and pasted that text into this document (the document actually is unclassifed and redacted, to please see the originl attached PDF file).

-jma

TOP SECRET//HCS O P/81 0/TK//ORCON/NOFORN
(U) Review of the Unauthorized Disclosures of
Former National Security Agency Contractor
Edward Snowden
September 15, 2016
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(U) Executive Summary
(U) In June 2013, former National Security Agency (NSA) contractor Edward Snowden
perpetrated the largest and most damaging public release of classified information in U.S.
intelligence history. In August 2014, the Chairman and Ranking Member of the House
Permanent Select Committee on Intelligence (HPSCI) directed Committee staff to carry out a
comprehensive review of the unauthorized disclosures. The aim of the review was to allow the
Committee to explain to other Members of Congress-and, where possible, the American
people-how this breach occurred, what the U.S. Government knows about the man who
committed it, and whether the security shortfalls it highlighted had been remedied.
(U) Over the next two years, Committee staff requested hundreds of documents from the
Intelligence Community (IC), participated in dozens of briefings and meetings with IC
personnel, conducted several interviews with key individuals with knowledge of Snowden’s
background and actions, and traveled to NSA Hawaii to visit Snowden’s last two work locations.
The review focused on Snowden’s background, how he was able to remove more than 1.5
million classified documents from secure NSA networks, what the 1.5 million documents
contained, and the damage their removal caused to national security.
(U) The Committee’s review was careful not to disturb any criminal investigation or
future prosecution of Snowden, who has remained in Russia since he fled there on June 23, 2013.
Accordingly, the Committee did not interview individuals whom the Department of Justice
identified as possible witnesses at Snowden’s trial, including Snowden himself, nor did the
Committee request any matters that may have occurred before a grand jury. Instead, the IC
provided the Committee with access to other individuals who possessed substantively similar
knowledge as the possible witnesses. Similarly, rather than interview Snowden’s NSA coworkers
and supervisors directly, Committee staff interviewed IC personnel who had reviewed
reports of interviews with Snowden’s co-workers and supervisors. The Committee remains
hopeful that Snowden will return to the United States to face justice.
(U) The bulk of the Committee’s 37-page review, which includes 237 footnotes, must
remain classified to avoid causing further harm to national security; however, the Committee has
made a number of unclassified findings. These findings demonstrate that the public narrative
popularized by Snowden and his allies is rife with falsehoods, exaggerations, and crucial
omissions, a pattern that began before he stole 1.5 million sensitive documents.
(U) First, Snowden caused tremendous damage to national security, and the vast
majority of the documents he stole have nothing to do with programs impacting individual
privacy interests-they instead pertain to military, defense, and intelligence programs of
great interest to America’s adversaries. A review of the materials Snowden compromised
makes clear that he handed over secrets that protect American troops overseas and secrets that
provide vital defenses against terrorists and nation-states. Some of Snowden’s disclosures
exacerbated and accelerated existing trends that diminished the IC’s capabilities to collect
against legitimate foreign intelligence targets, while others resulted in the loss of intelligence
streams that had saved American lives. Snowden insists he has not shared the full cache of 1.5
million classified documents with anyone; however, in June 2016, the deputy chairman of the
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Russian parliament’s defense and security committee publicly conceded that “Snowden did share
intelligence” with his government. Additionally, although Snowden’s professed objective may
have been to inform the general public, the information he released is also available to Russian,
Chinese, Iranian, and North Korean government intelligence services; any terrorist with Internet
access; and many others who wish to do harm to the United States.
(U) The full scope of the damage inflicted by Snowden remains unknown. Over the past
three years, the IC and the Department of Defense (DOD) have carried out separate reviewswith
differing methodologies-of the damage Snowden caused. Out of an abundance of caution,
DOD reviewed all 1.5 million documents Snowden removed. The IC, by contrast, has carried
out a damage assessment for only a small subset of the documents. The Committee is concerned
that the IC does not plan to assess the damage of the vast majority of documents Snowden
removed. Nevertheless, even by a conservative estimate, the U.S. Government has spent
hundreds of millions of dollars, and will eventually spend billions, to attempt to mitigate the
damage Snowden caused. These dollars would have been better spent on combating America’s
adversaries in an increasingly dangerous world.
(U) Second, Snowden was not a whistleblower. Under the law, publicly revealing
classified information does not qualify someone as a whistleblower. However, disclosing
classified information that shows fraud, waste, abuse, or other illegal activity to the appropriate
law enforcement or oversight personnel-including to Congress–does make someone a
whistleblower and affords them with critical protections. Contrary to his public claims that he
notified numerous NSA officials about what he believed to be illegal intelligence collection, the
Committee found no evidence that Snowden took any official effort to express concerns about
U.S. intelligence activities-legal, moral, or otherwise-to any oversight officials within the
U.S. Government, despite numerous avenues for him to do so. Snowden was aware of these
avenues. His only attempt to contact an NSA attorney revolved around a question about the
legal precedence of executive orders, and his only contact to the Central Intelligence Agency
(CIA) Inspector General (IO) revolved around his disagreements with his managers about
training and retention of information technology specialists.
(U) Despite Snowden’s later public claim that he would have faced retribution for
voicing concerns about intelligence activities, the Committee found that laws and regulations in
effect at the time of Snowden’s actions afforded him protection. The Committee routinely
receives disclosures from IC contractors pursuant to the Intelligence Community Whistleblower
Protection Act of 1998 (IC WP A). If Snowden had been worried about possible retaliation for
voicing concerns about NSA activities, he could have made a disclosure to the Committee. He
did not. Nor did Snowden remain in the United States to face the legal consequences of his
actions, contrary to the tradition of civil disobedience he professes to embrace. Instead, he fled to
China and Russia, two countries whose governments place scant value on their citizens’ privacy
or civil liberties-and whose intelligence services aggressively collect information on both the
United States and their own citizens.
(U) To gather the files he took with him when he left the country for Hong Kong,
Snowden infringed on the privacy of thousands of government employees and contractors. He
obtained his colleagues’ security credentials through misleading means, abused his access as a
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II
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systems administrator to search his co-workers’ personal drives, and removed the personally
identifiable information of thousands ofIC employees and contractors. From Hong Kong he
went to Russia, where he remains a guest of the Kremlin to this day.
(U) It is also not clear Snowden understood the numerous privacy protections that govern
the activities of the IC. He failed basic annual training for NSA employees on Section 702 of the
Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act (FISA) and complained the training was rigged to be
overly difficult. This training included explanations of the privacy protections related to the
PRISM program that Snowden would later disclose.
(U) Third, two weeks before Snowden began mass downloads of classified
documents, he was reprimanded after engaging in a workplace spat with NSA managers.
Snowden was repeatedly counseled by his managers regarding his behavior at work. For
example, in June 2012, Snowden became involved in a fiery e-mail argument with a supervisor
about how computer updates should be managed. Snowden added an NSA senior executive
several levels above the supervisor to the e-mail thread, an action that earned him a swift
reprimand from his contracting officer for failing to follow the proper protocol for raising
grievances through the chain of command. Two weeks later, Snowden began his mass
downloads of classified information from NSA networks. Despite Snowden’s later claim that the
March 2013 congressional testimony of Director of National Intelligence James Clapper was a
“breaking point” for him, these mass downloads predated Director Clapper’s testimony by eight
months.
(U) Fourth, Snowden was, and remains, a serial exaggerator and fabricator. A close
review of Snowden’s official employment records and submissions reveals a pattern of
intentional lying. He claimed to have left Army basic training because of broken legs when in
fact he washed out because of shin splints. He claimed to have obtained a high school degree
equivalent when in fact he never did. He claimed to have worked for the CIA as a “senior
advisor,” which was a gross exaggeration of his entry-level duties as a computer technician. He
also doctored his performance evaluations and obtained new positions at NSA by exaggerating
his resume and stealing the answers to an employment test. In May 2013, Snowden informed his
supervisor that he would be out of the office to receive treatment for worsening epilepsy. In
reality, he was on his way to Hong Kong with stolen secrets.
(U) Finally, the Committee remains concerned that more than three years after the
start of the unauthorized disclosures, NSA, and the IC as a whole, have not done enough to
minimize the risk of another massive unauthorized disclosure. Although it is impossible to
reduce the chance of another Snowden to zero, more work can and should be done to improve
the security of the people and computer networks that keep America’s most closely held secrets.
For instance, a recent DOD Inspector General report directed by the Committee found that NSA
has yet to effectively implement its post-Snowden security improvements. The Committee has
taken actions to improve IC information security in the Intelligence Authorization Acts for Fiscal
Years 2014, 2015, 2016, and 2017, and looks forward to working with the IC to continue to
improve security.
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111
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Table of Contents
Executi.v e su mmary …………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 1.
Scope and Methodology ………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 1
Early Life ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 1
CIA Employment ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 3
Transition to NSA Contractor …………………………………………………………………………………………… 6
NSA Hawaii – Contract Systems Administrator …………………………………………………………………. 8
Snowden’ s Downloading and Removal Process ……………………………………………………………….. 10
NSA Hawaii – Gaining More Access and Departing for China and Russia …………………………… 14
Communications with Intelligence Oversight Personnel.. …………………………………………………… 16
Was Snowden a Whistleblower? …………………………………………………………………………………….. 18
Foreign Influence ………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 19
What Did Snowden Take? ……………………………………………………………………………………………… 20
What Damage Did Snowden Cause? ……………………………………………………………………………….. 22
How Has the IC Recovered from Snowden? …………………………………………………………………….. 28
Conclusion – Efforts to Improve Security ………………………………………………………………………… 30
TOP 8ECRET//HC8 0 P/81 G/TK//ORCON/NOFORN
iv
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(U) Scope and Methodology
(U) Since June 2013, the unauthorized disclosures of former NSA contractor Edward
Snowden and the impact of these disclosures on the U.S. Intelligence Community (IC) have been
a subject of continual Committee oversight. The Committee held an open hearing on the
disclosures on June 18, 2013, and, over the next year, held eight additional hearings and
briefings, followed by numerous staff-level briefings on Snowden’s disclosures.
(U) In August 2014, then-Chairman Rogers and Ranking Member Ruppersberger
directed Committee staff to begin a review of the actions and motivations of Edward Snowden
related to his removal of more than 1.5 million classified documents from secure NSA networks.
The intent was not to duplicate the damage assessments already under way in the executive
branch; rather, the report would help explain to other Members of Congress-and, where
possible, the American people-how the “most massive and damaging theft of intelligence
information in our history” occurred, 1 what the U.S. Government knows about the man who
perpetrated it, and what damage his actions caused.
(U) Over the next two years, Committee staff requested hundreds of documents from the
IC, participated in dozens of briefings and meetings with IC personnel, and conducted several
interviews with key individuals with knowledge of Snowden’s background and actions, and
traveled to NSA Hawaii to visit Snowden’s last two work locations.
(U) The Committee’s product is a review, not an investigation, largely in deference to
any criminal investigation or future prosecution. Since he arrived in Russia on June 23, 2013,
Snowden has not returned to the United States to face the criminal charges against him.
Accordingly, the Committee did not interview or seek documents from individuals whom the
Department of Justice identified as possible witnesses at Snowden’s trial, including Snowden
himself, nor did the Committee request any matters that may have occurred before a grand jury.
Instead, the IC provided the Committee with access to other individuals who possessed
substantively similar knowledge. Similarly, rather than interview Snowden’s NSA co-workers
and supervisors directly, Committee staff interviewed IC personnel who had reviewed reports of
interviews with Snowden’s co-workers and supervisors.
(U) The Committee’s review has informed numerous congressionally directed actions
and resource allocation decisions in the enacted Intelligence Authorization Acts for Fiscal Years
2014, 2015, and 2016, and in the House-passed Intelligence Authorization Act for Fiscal Year
2017.
(U) Early Life
(U) Edward Joseph Snowden was born on June 21, 1983, in Elizabeth City, North
Carolina. His parents, Lon Snowde~, a Coast Guard chief petty officer, and Elizabeth Snowden,
1 Testimony of Director of National Intelligence James R. Clapper, HPSCI Worldwide Threats Hearing (Open
Session, Feb. 4, 2014).
TOP 8ECRET//HC8 0 P/81 G/TK//ORCON/NOFORN
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a federal court clerk, moved the family to Annapolis, Maryland, when Edward was a child.2 In
2001, his parents divorced. 3
(U) By his own account, Snowden was a poor student.4 He dropped out of high school in
his sophomore year and began taking classes at the local community college. 5 Snowden hoped
that the classes would allow him to earn a General Education Diploma (GED), but nothing the
Committee found indicates that he did so. To the contrary, on an applicant resume submitted to
NSA in 2012, Snowden indicated that he graduated from “Maryland High School” in 2001;6
earlier, in 2006, Snowden had posted on a public web forum that he did not “have a degree of
ANY type. I don’t even have a high school diploma.” 7
(U) After leaving community college, Snowden eventually enlisted in the Army Reserve
as a special forces recruit. He left after five months, receiving a discharge in September 2004
without finishing training courses. 8 Snowden would later claim he had to leave basic training
because “he broke both his legs in a training accident.” 9 An NSA security official the
Committee interviewed took a different view, telling Committee staff that Snowden was
discharged after suffering from “shin splints,” a common overuse injury. 10
(U) Unable to pursue his preferred military career, Snowden turned to security guard
work. In February 2005, the University of Maryland’s Center for the Advanced Study of
2 “NSA Leaker Edward Snowden Has Ties to North Carolina,” Raleigh News & Observer (Aug. 1, 2013).
3 John M. Broder & Scott Shane, “For Snowden, A Life of Ambition, Despite the Drifting,” New York Times (June
15, 2013).
4 Glenn Greenwald, Ewen MacAskill, and Laura Poitras, “Edward Snowden: the Whistleblower Behind the NSA
Surveillance Revelations,” The Guardian (June 11, 2013), available at
https:/ /www .theguardian.com/world/2013/j un/09/edward-snowden-nsa-whistleblower-surveillance ( accessed June
28, 2016).
5 Matthew Mosk, et al., “TIMELINE: Edward Snowden’s Life As We Know It,” ABC News, (June 13, 2013).
6 See, e.g., Edward Snowden Resume. Regarding “High School Education,” the resume Snowden submitted to
NSA’s Tailored Access Operations unit says as follows: For “Grad/Exit dt,” Snowden wrote “2001-06-21 ;” For his
“School,” Snowden wrote “Maryland High School”; and for “Level Achieved”, Snowden wrote “High School
Graduate.”
7 See supra, note 3. One of Snowden’ s associates claims to have reviewed official educational records that
demonstrate Snowden’s passage ofa high school equivalency test and receipt of high school equivalency diploma in
June 2004. Any receipt of such a diploma in 2004 stands in tension with Snowden’s 2006 claim to not have a
“degree of any type [or] … even a high school diploma”; and with his 2012 resume, which stated that he either left or
graduated from “Maryland High School” in 2001.
8 “What We Know About NSA Leaker Edward Snowden,” NBC News (June 10, 2013), available at
http://usnews.nbcnews.com/ _ news/2013/06/10/18882615-what-we-know-about-nsa-Jeaker-snowden?lite (accessed
June 28, 2016); see also “Edward Snowden Did Enlist For Special Forces, US Army Confirms,” The Guardian
(June 10, 2013), available at http://www.theguardian.com/world/2013/jun/10/edward-snowden-army-special forces
(accessed September 15, 2016).
9 “Edward Snowden Did Enlist For Special Forces, US Army Confirms,” The Guardian (June 10, 2013), available
at http://www.theguardian.com/world/2013/jun/l 0/edward-snowden-army-special forces (accessed September 15,
2016).
10 See supra, note 6. If untreated, shin splints can progress into stress fractures, but the Committee found no
evidence that Snowden was involved in a training accident.
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2
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Language (CASL) sponsored Snowden for a Top Secret security clearance. 11 The investigation
for that clearance turned up only one piece of derogatory information: ~ of
Snowden’s said she did not recommend him for access to classified information. Snowden
sought counseling ~’ and the counselor recommended him for a position
of trust with no reservations. The favorable investigation, combined with a successful
polygraph test, enabled Snowden to work at CASL’s lobby reception desk as a “security
specialist.” He worked there for four months, until he was hired by BAE Systems to work on a
CIA Global Communications Services Contract.
(S//NF) Snowden’s stint as a BAE Systems contractor was similarly short-lived. For less
than a year, he worked as a systems administrator who “managed installations and application
rollouts” in the Washington, DC, area.14 In August 2006, he converted from a contractor to a
CIA employee. As part of that conversion, Snowden went through an “entrance on duty”
s chological evaluation.
(U) CIA Employment
(U) Snowden was not, as he would later claim, a “senior advisor” at CIA. 16 Rather, his
only position as a CIA employee was as a Telecommunications Information Systems Officer, or
TISO. The job description for a TISO makes clear that the position is an entry-level IT support
function, not a senior executive. TISOs “operate, maintain, install, and manage
telecommunications systems,” and “provide project management and systems integration for
voice and data communications systems,” including “support to customers after installation.” 17
Even so, the position may have appealed to Snowden because TISOs “typically spend 60-70% of
their career abroad.” 18
(U) In November 2006–less than three months after starting with CIA-Snowden
contacted the Agency’s Inspector General (IG) seeking “guidance” because he felt he was “being
11 NSA, Edward Snowden Timeline (Sept. 30, 2014). Overall document classified Cl/NF; cited portion classified
U//FOUO.
12 NSA, FBI, and NCSC, “‘Negative Information’ Found in Edward Snowden’s Personnel Security File,” (Sept. 30,
2014). Overall document classified U//FOUO.
13 Id.
14 CIA Office of Security, “Response to HPSCI Staffer Meeting,” (Nov. 18, 2014). Overall document classified
S//NF; cited portion classified S//NF.
is Id.
16 Laura Poitras and Glenn Greenwald, “NSA Whistleblower Edward Snowden: ‘I Don’t Want To Live in a Society
that Does These Sorts of Things,” The Guardian (Jun. 9, 2013), available at
http://www.theguardian.com/world/video/2013/jun/09/nsa-whistleblower-edward-snowden-interview-video
(accessed May 2, 2016).
17 CIA, Careers and Internships, “Telecommunications Information Systems Officer – Entry/Developmental,”
www.cia.gov (Oct. 2, 2015).
is Id.
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unfairly targeted” by his supervisor. 19 After entering on duty, Snowden believed there were
“morale and retention issues” among his fellow TISOs.20 He raised those concerns with his
training supervisor, the chief of the communications training unit, but “felt they were left
unaddressed.” 21 He next tried the chief and deputy chief of his operational group, but was
similarly dissatisfied with their response. 22
(U) Undeterred, Snowden spent the next week surveying the other TISOs who entered on
duty at the same time as him.23 He wrote up his findings and sent them to the CIA’s Strategic
Human Capital Office. Then, instead of attempting to raise his concerns again with his
supervisor or work collaboratively with other TISOs to resolve the concerns, Snowden sent his
concerns to the Deputy Director of CIA for Support-the head of the entire Directorate of
Support and one of the ten most senior executives of CIA.24
(U) In his e-mail, Snowden complained about the process of assigning new TISOs to
overseas locations, the pay of TIS Os compared to contractors who performed similar work, and
the difficulty for TISOs to transfer laterally to other jobs. 25
~ Despite his lack of experience, the 23-year-old Snowden told the Deputy Director he
felt “pretty disenfranchised” because his immediate supervisors did not take his unsolicited
recommendations to heart. 26
(U) Snowden told the IG that, after he contacted the Deputy Director for Support, his
supervisors pulled him in to their offices for unscheduled counseling. In his view, they were
“extremely hostile” and “seem[ ed] to believe I have trouble bonding with my classmates.” 27
Those counseling sessions prompted Snowden to contact the IG to help protect him from
“reprisal for speaking truth to power.”
(U) One day after receiving his complaint, an IG employee responded to Snowden and
,recommended he contact the CIA’s Ombudsman, an official who could help Snowden sort
through the options available to him and mediate disputes between managers and employees. 28
The IG employee also directed Snowden to the relevant Agency regulation regarding the factors
managers could consider when deciding to retain an employee beyond the initial three-year trial
period.29 Whether that response satisfied Snowden is unclear; shortly after receiving it, Snowden
sent another message to the IG employee instructing him to disregard the initial request because
19 E-mail from Snowden to CIA Office of Inspector General (Nov. 2, 2006), Overall document classified S; cited
portion marked U//AIUO.
20 Id. Overall document classified S; cited portion not portion-marked.
21 Id. Overall document classified S; cited portion not portion-marked.
22 Id. Overall document classified S; cited portion not portion-marked.
23 Id. Overall document classified S; cited portion not portion-marked.
24 Id. Overall document classified S; cited portion not portion-marked.
25 Id. Overall document classified S; cited portion not portion-marked.
26 Id. Overall document classified S; cited portion classified C.
27 Id. Overall document classified S; cited portion not portion-marked
28 E-mail from CIA Office oflnspector General to Edward Snowden (Nov. 3, 2006). Overall document classified S;
cited portion classified U//AIUO.
29 Id. Overall document classified S; cited portion classified U//AIUO.
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the issue had been “addressed.” 30 During the rest of his time at CIA, Snowden did not contact
the IG.
f8) After the completion of his training, Snowden was assigned to – in March 2007
for his first TISO assignment. 31 Snowden was, in the words of his supervisor, “an energetic
officer” with a “plethora” of experience on Microsoft operating systems, but he “often does not
positively respond to advice from more senior officers, … does not recognize the chain of
command, often demonstrates a lack of maturity, and does not appear to be embracing the CIA
culture. “32
f8) A few months after starting in_, Snowden asked to apply for a more senior
position in – as a regional communications officer. His supervisor did not endorse his
application. When he was not selected for the position, Snowden responded by starting “a
controversial e-mail exchange with very senior officers” in which he questioned the selection
board’s professionaljudgment. 33 Years later, when characterizing his experience as a CIA TISO,
Snowden would write that he was “specially selected by [CIA’s] Executive Leadership Team for
[a] high-visibility assignment” that “required exceptionally wide responsibility.” 34 The
description is in tension with his supervisor’s account of a junior officer who “needed more
experience before transitioning to such a demanding position. “35
f8) Snowden also modified CIA’s performance review software in connection with his
annual performance review, by manipulating the font. 36 This behavior led to Snowden’s recall
for “professional consultations” with the head of all CIA technical officers in Europe. 37 This was
the first but not the only time more senior CIA officers attempted to correct Snowden’s behavior.
His supervisor in – cataloged six counseling sessions between October 2007 and April
2008, nearly one per month, regarding his behavior at work. 38 In September 2008, Snowden
requested to leave – “short of tour,” that is, before his scheduled rotation date to a new
assignment. 39 The request was denied. Disobeying orders, Snowden traveled back to the
Washington, D.C., area for his and his fiancee’s medical appointments. Because of his
disobedience, Snowden’s supervisors recommended he not return to __ 40
30 E-mail from Snowden to CIA Office oflnspector General (Nov. 3, 2006). Overall document classified S; cited
portion classified U//AIUO.
31 NSA, Edward Snowden Timeline (Sept. 30, 2014); overall document classified C//NF; cited portion classified
Cl/NF.
32 Memorandum for the Record by Senior Telecommunications Officer – Europe, “TISO –Edward
Snowden” (Sept. 4, 2008).
33 CIA Office of Security, “Response to HP SCI Staffer Meeting,” (Nov. 18, 2014).
34 Edward Snowden Resume.
35 Memorandum for the Record by Senior Telecommunications Officer – Europe, “TISO –Edward
Snowden” (Sept. 4, 2008). Overall document classified S//NF; cited portion classified S.
36 Id. Overall document classified S//NF; cited portion classified S.
37 Id. Overall document classified S//NF; cited portion classified S.
38 Memorandum for the Record by Office in Charge, -· “TISO –Edward Snowden” (Dec. 18, 2008).
Overall document classified S//NF; cited portion classified S.
39 Id. Overall document classified S//NF; cited portion classified S.
40 Id. Overall document classified S//NF; cited portion classified S.
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(8//NF) In January 2009, CIA submitted a “fitness for duty” report for Snowden, an
administrative tool to determine whether Snowden had any work-related medical issues.41 The
Agency also assigned him to a ~osition in the Washington, D.C., area so he could be available
for any medical appointments. 4
(8//NF) Several years later, Snowden claimed that, while in_, he had ethical
qualms about working for CIA.43 None of the memoranda for the record detailing his numerous
counseling sessions mention Snowden expressing any concerns about
-· Neither the CIA IG nor any other CIA intelligence oversight official or manager
has a record of Snowden expressing any concerns about the legality or morality of CIA activities.
(U) Transition to NSA Contractor
(C,l/NF) Around the same time that Snowden returned to the D.C. area, he applied for a
position with an NSA contractor, Perot Systems, as a systems administrator. He was still a CIA
employee at the time and his clearance remained in good standing with no derogatory
information.44 On March 25, 2009, Perot Systems sponsored Snowden for employment; six days
later, on March 31, NSA Security checked the Intelligence Community-wide security database,
“Scattered Castles,” to verify Snowden’s clearance.45
(U) Seeing no derogatory information in Scattered Castles, NSA Security approved
Snowden for access eight days later, on April 7.46
(8//NF) On April 16, Snowden formally resigned as a CIA employee. 47 CIA’s Security
Office u dated his Scattered Castles record on April 20,
. Because NSA had checked the
database three weeks earlier, NSA Security did not learn of the – in his record at that
time.49 It is unclear ifNSA Security would have treated Snowden’s onboarding any differently
had NSA been aware of
41 CIA Office of Security, “Response to HPSCI Staffer Meeting,” (Nov. 18, 2014). Overall document classified
SI/NF; cited portion classified SI/NF.
42 Id. Overall document classified SI/NF; cited
43
NSA, Edward Snowden Timeline (Sept. 30, 2014). Overall document classified Cl/NF; cited portion classified
Cl/NF.
45 Id. Overall document classified Cl/NF; cited portion classified UI/FOUO.
46 Id. Overall document classified Cl/NF; cited portion classified UI/FOUO.
47 Id. Overall document classified Cl/NF; cited portion classified Cl/NF.
48 CIA Office of Security, “Response to HPSCI Staffer Meeting,” (Nov. 18, 2014). Overall document classified
SI/NF.
49 NSA, Edward Snowden Time Ii~ 30, 2014 ). Overall document classified Cl INF; cited portion classified
Cl/NF. The alerting function for – in Scattered Castles has since been fixed.
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(U) From May 2009 to February 2012, Snowden worked in a variety of roles supporting
IC contracts for Dell, which had purchased Perot Systems in 2009. He worked as an IT systems
administrator at NSA sites in .. for a little more than a year, where he supported NSA’s
Agency Extended Information Systems Services (AXISS) contracts. 50
(U) One co-worker recalled that while he was working in .. , Snowden traveled to
Thailand to learn how to be a ship’s captain, but never finished the training course. According to
another co-worker, at some point before he was stationed in .. , Snowden took a trip to China
and spoke about his admiration for the Chinese people and Chinese martial arts. 51 The same coworker
remembered Snowden expressing his view that the U.S. government had overreached on
surveillance and that it was illegitimate for the government to obtain data on individuals’
personal computers. 52 There are no indications of how Snowden attempted to square this belief
with his continued employment in support of the foreign signals intelligence mission ofNSA.
(U) Other co-workers from Snowden’s time in 1111rec alled him as someone frustrated
with his lack of access to information. One remembered Snowden complaining how he lacked
access at CIA;53 another recalled him attemptin~ to gain access to information about the war in
Iraq that was outside of his job responsibilities. 4 Although Snowden did not obtain the
information he was looking for, he later claimed it was “typical” of the U.S. government to cover
up embarrassing information. 55
(C//NF) In September 2010, Snowden returned to the United States and Dell attempted to
move him to a position where he would support IT systems at CIA. Because of the ~ in
Scattered Castles, however, CIA refused to grant Snowden access to its information. Dell put
Snowden on leave for three months while waiting for a position that did not require a security
clearance to open up. Eventually, one did: In December 2010, Snowden started work in an
uncleared “systems engineer/pre-sales technical role” for Dell supporting a CIA contract. 57
(U) Snowden was also due for a periodic background reinvestigation in the fall of 2010.
OPM contractor U.S. Information Services completed that review in May 2011, finding no
derogatory information. According to an after-the-fact review by the National
Counterintelligence Executive, the reinvestigation was “incomplete” and “did not present a
complete picture of Mr. Snowden.” 58 Among its other flaws, the investigation never attempted
to verify Snowden’s CIA employment or speak to his CIA supervisors, nor did it attempt to
independently verify Snowden’s self-report of a past security violation-areas where further
so Id. Overall document classified C//NF; cited portion classified U//FOUO.
51 Interview with NSA Atto~(Feb. 8, 2016) (report of interview with-·
52 Id. The same co-worker, -· also mentioned that Snowden considered himself a privacy advocate.
” Interview with NSA Attom,b. 8, 2016) (report of interview with -·
54 Id. (report of interview with .
55 Id. (report of interview with .
56 NSA, Edward Snowden Timeline (Sept. 30, 2014). Overall document classified C//NF; cited portion classified
Cl/NF.
57 Id. Overall document classified C//NF; cited portion classified C//NF.
58 National Counterintelligence Executive, Technical and quality review of the April 2011 Single Scope Background
Investigation- Periodic Reinvestigation on Mr. Snowden,” (Aug. 23, 2013); overall document classified U//FOUO.
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information could have alerted NSA to CIA’s concerns. 59 Contrary to best practices, the
investigation also failed to develop any character references beyond the two people Snowden
himself listed, his mother and his girlfriend. 60
(8) From August 31, 2011, to January 11, 2012, Snowden took a leave of absence from
His Dell co-workers offered conflicting accounts of how he spent his leave, 61
(U) NSA Hawaii – Contract Systems Administrator
(U) Snowden returned from leave in early 2012 and took a position as a general systems
administrator supporting Dell’s AXISS work at NSA’s Hawaii Cryptologic .Center.62 As part of
the change in station, he took a counterintelligence polygraph examination. The first exam was
“inconclusive,” but did not lead to NSA Security developing any further information; the second
was successful. 63 At the end of March 2012, Snowden moved to Hawaii.
(U) The job Snowden performed in Hawaii was similar to his duties during the previous
three years with Dell. He was a field systems administrator, working in technical support office
ofNSA Hawaii. Some of his work involved moving large numbers of files between different
internal Microsoft SharePoint servers for use by other NSA Hawaii employees. Although most
NSA Hawaii staff had moved to a new building at the start of 2012, Snowden and other technical
support workers remained in the Kunia “tunnel,” an underground facility originally built for
aircraft assembly during World War Two.
(U) Snowden had few friends among his co-workers at NSA Hawaii. 64 Those co-workers
described him as “smart” and “nerdy,” but also someone who was “arrogant,” “introverted,” and
“squirrelly”; an “introvert” who frequently ‘jumped to conclusions. “65 His supervisors found his
work product to be “adequate,” but he was chronically late for work, frequently not showing up
until the afternoon. 66 Snowden claimed he had trouble waking up on time because he stayed up
late playing video games. 67
(U) Few of Snowden’s Hawaii co-workers recall him expressing political opinions. One
remembered a conversation in which Snowden claimed the Stop Online Piracy Act and the
59 Id.
60 Id.
61 Interview with NSA Attorney (Feb. 8, 2016).
62 NSA, Edward Snowden Timeline (Sept. 30, 2014). Dell Federal was a subcontractor to CACI International for
NSA’s AXISS Field IT support contracts. E-mail from NSA Legislative Affairs to HPSCI Staff, “Responses to
Your Questions on Read and Return Documents for HPSCI Media Leaks Review,” (Dec. 2, 2014, at 3:47 PM).
Overall document cited U//FOUO; cited portion classified U//FOUO. ·
63 Id.
64 Interview with NSA Security Official (Jan. 28, 2016).
65 Interview with NSA Attorney (Jan. 28, 2016).
66 Id.
61 Id.
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Protect Intellectual Property Act would lead to online censorship. 68 In the same conversation,
Snowden told his colleague that he had not read either bill.69 The same co-worker recalled
Snowden once claiming that, based on his meetings with Chinese hackers at a conference, the
United States caused problems for China but China never caused problems for the United
States.70 Although no other co-worker in Hawaii recalled Snowden expressing any sympathy for
foreign governments, a different co-worker from the Kunia tunnel remembered that Snowden
defended the actions of Private Bradley Manning. 71
(U) One incident early in Snowden’s time at NSA Hawaii merits further description. In
June 2012, Snowden installed a patch to a group of servers on classified networks that supported
NSA field sites, including NSA Hawaii. Although the patch was intended to fix a vulnerability
to the classified servers, the patch caused the servers to crash, resulting in a loss of network
access for several NSA sites.72 One ofNSA’s senior technical support managers, a government
employee, fired off an e-mail to a number of systems administrators, asking who had installed
the troublesome patch and sarcastically chiding that individual for failing to test the patch before
loading it. 73
(U) Snowden replied to all the recipients and added the deputy head ofNSA’s technical
services directorate to the e-mail thread. This individual was several levels above the immediate
government supervisors whom Snowden could have contacted first. Calling the initial e-mail
“not appropriate and … not helpful,” Snowden accused the middle manager of focusing on
“evasion and finger-pointing rather than problem resolution.” 74
(U) Snowden received a quick rebuke. The NSA civilian employee in Washington
responsible for managing field AXISS contracts sent Snowden an e-mail telling him his response
was “totally UNACCEPTABLE” because “[u]nder no circumstances will any contractor call out
or point fingers at any government manager whether you agree with their handling of an issue or
not.”75 She further instructed Snowden that ifhe “felt the need to discuss with any management
it should have been done with the site management you are working with and no one else.” 76
~ That weekend, Snowden came in to work
77
68 Interview with NSA Attorney (Jan. 28, 2016) (citing co-worker 111111).
69 Id. (citing co-worker
70 Id. (citing co-worker
71 Id.; Interview with N ttomey (Feb. 8, 2016) ( citing co-worker.).
72 Interview with (Oct. 28, 2015).
73 E-mail from , “RE: (U) ICA-tcp issues with KB2653956,” (Jun. 21, 2012, at 1:20AM). Overall
document classified U//FOUO.
74 E-mail from Edward Snowden, “RE: (U) ICA-tcp issues with KB2653956,” (Jun. 21, 2012, at 1 :OOPM). Overall
document classified U//FOUO.
75 E-mail from_, “(U) E-mail you sent in response to ICA-tcp issues with a patch,” (Jun. 22, 2012, at
3:26AM). Overall document classified U//FOUO.
76 Id.
77 Interview with NSA Security Official (Jan. 28, 2016).
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(U) The following Monday, he sent an e-mail to the NSA middle manager saying he
“understood how bad this e-mail looked for what was intended to be a relatively benign
message” and acknowledging that the e-mail “never should have happened in the first place.” 78
The manager accepted the apology, explaining that his problem with the message “had nothing
to do with the content but with distribution” because he did not understand “the elevation of the
issue to such a high management level”; that is, to the deputy head ofNSA’s technical services
directorate. 79
(U) Snowden would later publicly claim that his “breaking point”-the final impetus for
his unauthorized downloads and disclosures of troves of classified material-was March 2013
congressional testimony by Director of National Intelligence James Clapper. 80
(SI/REL TO USA, FVEY) But only a few weeks after his conflict with NSA managers,
on July 12, 2012-eight months before Director Clapper’s testimony-Snowden began the
unauthorized, mass downloading of information from NSA networks. 81
(U) Snowden ‘s Downloading and Removal Process
(U) Snowden used several methods to gather information on NSA networks, none of
which required advanced computer skills.
(U) At first, Snowden used blunt tools to download files en masse from NSA networks.
Two non-interactive downloading tools, commonly known as “scraping” tools, called “wget”
and DownThemAll! were available on NSA classified networks for legitimate system
administrator purposes. 84 Both tools were designed to allow users to download large numbers of
files over slow or unstable network connections. 85 Snowden used the two tools with a list of
website addresses, sometimes writing simple programming scripts to generate the lists. For
78 E-mail from Edward Snowden, “RE: (U) ICA-tcp issues with KB2653956” (Jun. 25, 2012, at 2:31AM). Overall
document classified U//FOUO.
79 E-mail from_, “RE: (U) ICA-tcp issues with KB2653956” (Jun. 25, 2012, at 1:51AM). Overall
document classified U//FOUO.
80 “Transcript: ARD Interview with Edward Snowden,” (Jan. 26, 2014), available at
https://edwardsnowden.com/20 14/01/27 /video-and-interview-with-edward-snowden.
81 NSA, Edward Snowden Timeline (Sept. 30, 2014). Overall document classified C//NF; cited portion classified
C//REL TO USA, FVEY.
82 NSA, “Methods Used by Edward Snowden To Remove Documents from NSA Networks,” (Oct. 29, 2014).
Overall document classified S//REL TO USA, FVEY; cited ortion classified S//REL.
83
NSA, “Methods Used by Edward Snowden To Remove Documents from NSA Networks,” (Oct. 29, 2014).
Overall document classified S//REL TO USA, FVEY; cited portion classified U//FOUO
85 Id. Overall document classified S//REL TO USA, FVEY; cited portion classified U//FOUO
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instance, ifNSA webpages were set up in numerical order (i.e., page 1, page 2, page 3, and so
on), Snowden programmed a script to automatically collect the pages. 86 Neither scraping tool
targeted areas of potential privacy or civil liberties concerns; rather, Snowden downloaded all
information from internal NSA networks and classified webpages of other IC elements. 87
(U) Exceeding the access required to do his job, Snowden next began using his systems
administrator privileges to search across other NSA employees’ personal network drives and
copy what he found on their drives.91 Snowden also enlisted his unwitting colleagues to help
him, asking several of his co-workers for their securit1 credentials so he could ob