FBI Cyber Research revealed

The FBI identified incidents over the past few months in which cyber actors scanned for and sought to exploit audio and visual communication devices on networks to identify vulnerabilities which could later be used to gain access and unlawfully acquire information about the organization. In addition to targeting corporate information, vulnerable devices may be targeted for compromise for use in botnets or other criminal activities. The types of devices targeted include: Voice over Internet Protocol (VoIP) phones, video conferencing equipment, conference phones, VoIP routers, and cloud-based communication systems. While cyber actors have targeted VoIP and other communication devices in the past, the FBI continues to see these devices scanned by cyber actors for vulnerabilities.

Threat

Specifically, the FBI observed cyber actors identifying and probing communication devices by issuing HTTP GET requestsa to a business server or network to retrieve device configuration files. Information contained in configuration files often reveals IP addresses, usernames, passwords, system management URLs, and assigned phone numbers – all of which could be used by cyber actors for malicious purposes. Many of the requests are specific to particular brands of devices. Victims will often receive several GET requests in succession with the actors scanning for multiple brands of devices.

In addition, cyber actors retrieve IP addresses for further exploitation by using businesses’ customer service VoIP hyperlinks, which are traditionally made available for customers to use in contacting the business. Once those hyperlinked calls are answered, the actor retrieves the IP address belonging to the phone which answered the call. Once the IP address is retrieved, an actor could send a large volume of packets to the IP address, overloading it and taking the service offline for the targeted business and its legitimate customers.

In addition to the above techniques, cyber actors target devices with brute-force attacks, attempting unauthorized access through the use of common usernames and passwords. Open source scanning tools can also be used to identify vulnerable communication devices and any associated ports.

All of the information obtained through scans and other methods are likely used for specific targeting efforts by cyber actors. This includes leveraging access to compromised audio and video devices to eavesdrop on meetings or conference calls, placing fraudulent international phone calls, leveraging the compromised device for use in botnets, and conducting man-in-the-middle attacks to redirect corporate network traffic.

Recommendations

The following recommendations may limit the success of these types of attacks:

Conduct daily server log reviews to identify unusual activity, including GET and POST requests from external IP addresses.

Work with the communication device/system providers to ensure servers are patched and updated regularly.

Consider restricting access to configuration files or configuring firewalls to block traffic from unauthorized IP addresses.

Restrict communication devices/systems to only non-sensitive business networks.

Conduct regular penetration testing exercises on communication devices to identify and address vulnerabilities in a timely matter.

Enable encryption on teleconference programs and applications and consider disabling auto-answer capabilities.

Password protect configuration files, if possible.

Regularly review and update users with access to administrative accounts.

Segment configuration files on the network. Be sure to protect configuration and other device-related files after getting the device out of the box. Don’t just plug and play.

 

Revealed – The U.S. DoD Forensic Science Lexicon

DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE
DoD Forensic Science Lexicon
May 27, 2018

Department of Defense Forensic Science Lexicon
Page Count: 99 pages
Date: January 2018
Restriction: None
Originating Organization: Defense Forensics and Biometrics Agency
File Type: pdf
File Size: 956,884 bytes
File Hash (SHA-256): 4C47BA0C862DB9F0E3775053480ED5715945EAEB78510D786286A554C8C2BDC1

Download File

https://info.publicintelligence.net/DoD-ForensicScienceLexicon.pdf

 

1 Introduction

The Department of Defense (DoD) performs forensic science in a collaborative environment which necessitates the clear communication of all activities and their results. A critical enabler of communication is the use of a clear, internally consistent vocabulary.

1.1 Purpose

The goal of the Department of Defense Forensics Lexicon is to provide an operational vocabulary to address Forensics. A shared vocabulary enables a common understanding of Forensics, enhances the fidelity and the utility of operational reporting, facilitates structured data sharing, and strengthens the decision making processes across the DoD.

1.2 Scope

This lexicon encompasses the broad spectrum of scientific disciplines, processes, and equipment associated with performing forensic activities. Additional terms include those related to the programmatic support domains (e.g., doctrine, policy, standards, and accreditation) which enable forensic activity within the DoD.

Excluded from this lexicon are terms and definitions that describe the various types of Improvised Explosive Devices (IEDs) and the specific components of IEDs, as those have been previously defined in other well established lexicons.

1.3 Approach

This Department of Defense Forensics Lexicon was authored by subject matter experts from key organizations and agencies engaged in the full range of forensic activities and the personnel that provide programmatic support to those experts. It was then staffed multiple times across the Defense Forensics Enterprise in order to obtain support and consensus.

DHS Reveals – Unmanned Aircrafts Systems Endanger Cybersecurity

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The Department of Homeland Security (DHS)/National Protection and Programs Directorate (NPPD)/Office of Cyber and Infrastructure Analysis (OCIA) assesses that unmanned aircraft systems (UASs) provide malicious actors an additional method of gaining undetected proximity to networks and equipment within critical infrastructure sectors. Malicious actors could use this increased proximity to exploit unsecured wireless systems and exfiltrate information. Malicious actors could also exploit vulnerabilities within UASs and UAS supply chains to compromise UASs belonging to critical infrastructure operators and disrupt or interfere with legitimate UAS operations.

 

UAS FACILITATE PHYSICAL ACCESS TO UNSECURED SYSTEMS

UASs provide malicious actors an additional method of gaining proximity to networks and equipment within critical infrastructure sectors. Malicious actors could then use the proximity provided by a UAS to wirelessly exploit unsecured systems and extract information from systems they cannot otherwise access remotely or may not be able to access due to range limitations. This includes networks and devices within secured buildings, as well as networks and devices behind fencing and walls.

UASs can also allow a malicious actor to wirelessly exploit vulnerabilities from a distance (figure 1). The prevalent ownership and operation of UASs by the general public, the distance from which UAS can be operated, and a lack of tracking data can also provide malicious actors a level of anonymity that otherwise may not be available. UASs, in particular UASs, are typically more difficult to detect than a malicious actor attempting to trespass beyond physical barriers.

UAS FOR WIRELESS SYSTEM EXPLOITATION

Malicious actors could utilize UASs in order to wirelessly exploit access points and unsecured networks and devices. This can include using UASs in order to inject malware, execute malicious code, and perform man-in-the-middle attacks. UASs can also deliver hardware for exploiting unsecured wireless systems, allowing malicious actors persistent access to the wireless system until the hardware is detected or runs out of power. While OCIA does not know of a confirmed incident utilizing UASs to exploit wireless systems, researchers have demonstrated this capability.

MALICIOUS ACTORS CAN EXPLOIT COMPROMISED UAS

While UASs can be used as a tool for an attacker, they are also vulnerable to exploitation. Many commercial UAS variations, for example, currently communicate with ground stations and operators using unencrypted feeds. This can allow a malicious actor to intercept and review data sent to and from the UAS.