REVEALED – MILITARY EXERCISE SHCHIT-88 OPERATIONAL SUMMARY NO. 1 FOR THE PERIOD 0800 25 MAY TO 0800 2 JUNE 1988

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DOCUMENT SUMMARY
This document describes Warsaw Pact military exercises conducted between 25 May and 2 June 1988. Summarized in detail, the comprehensive exercise brought all facets of the combined forces to “wartime strength” in response to a theoretical threat posed by NATO.

SUBJECTS DISCUSSED
Warsaw Treaty Organization–Armed Forces
Warsaw Treaty Organization
North Atlantic Treaty Organization
LOCATIONS DISCUSSED
Czechoslovakia
East Germany
Eastern Europe
Poland
Russia

[Source: Institute of National Remembrance (IPNBU) 1408/2. Translated for CWIHP by
Gary Goldberg.]
[letterhead] GENERAL STAFF OF THE POLISH ARMED FORCES
Deliver at 0800 2 June SECRET
Copy Nº 4
Exercise
[Original Polish receipt and
declassification stamps]
OPERATIONAL SUMMARY
Nº 1
(for the period 0800 25 May to 0800 2 June 1988)
Warsaw
1988
OPERATIONAL SUMMARY Nº 1
for the period 0800 25 May to 0800 2 June 1988

  1. In accordance with the growing threat of the “BLUES”, the “REDS” performed a
    covert operational deployment of selected formations and units in [their] armed forces.
    The following measures were performed within the framework of general preparations:
  • the dispatch of servicemen and reserves to military schools, courses, retraining, and
    command-staff training has been stopped; servicemen in courses are being recalled to
    their units;
  • troops in temporary locations are being recalled to their garrisons with the exception of
    formations at wartime strength and undergoing training (exercises) at training areas;
  • at the instruction of the Chief of the General Staff of the Polish Armed Forces the
    formation of detachments for engineer preparation of the terrain began on 1 June and
    which will be made ready to carry out work on behalf of the 3rd Front beginning [inserted
    by hand: 2] June.
  • [the following] have been deployed at field control posts: by 1 June, the staff of the 3rd
    Front, by 0800 2 June, the staffs of the 2nd, 3rd, 6th, and 8th Armies;
  • by 26 May formations and units have been inspected for the deployment of elements
    of the mobilization base;
  • the discharge of reservists being trained has been halted. Equipment received from
    the economy has been left in the units;
  • since 1 June aircraft and helicopters received from the economy are being accepted
    and reequipped;
  • beginning 26 May a 24-hour watch has been established in all the armed forces and
    also in military commissariats; [there are] full shifts in national air defense troops and at
    the remaining HQs – reduced [shifts];
  • the border forces and selected units of the Ministry of Internal Affairs have increased
    security at the border, airfields, and seaports.
  1. According to a 25 May directive of the GK OVS in the Western TVD he has planned a
    frontal defensive operation for 1 June. In response to the actions of the “BLUES” the
    forces allocated from the 2nd, 3rd, and 6th Armies and also the engineer troops are
    preparing defensive positions in the main defensive zone.
    At the instruction of the Chief of the General Staff of the Polish Armed Forces the
    allocated combined-arms units, air forces, navy, missile troops and artillery, and REhB,
    intelligence, and communications have been brought up to wartime strength under the
    guise of an exercise and work on behalf of the economy and into full combat readiness
    in permanently deployed locations or contingency [neplanovye] areas.
    A. The 2nd Army (GDR Peoples Army)
  • by 25 May the 11th msd had been brought up to wartime strength and beginning on 31
    May together with a battalion of engineer vehicles it began engineer preparations of the
    2nd and 3rd positions of the main defensive zone in the sector south of SZCZECIN and
    BARLINEK;
  • on 25 May the Druzhba-88 exercise began at the DRAWSKI training area in which the
    18th msd, 25th td (of the 8th Army), and missile troops and artillery of the Army are
    participating;
  • [the following] have been brought up to wartime strength under the guise of
    preparations for an exercise: by 28 May, the 19th td; by 30 May, the 30th msd. The
    formations are being brought into readiness in permanently deployed locations and are
    undergoing training in combat teamwork [slazhivanie] in garrison training centers.
  • the 29th msd was brought up to wartime strength by 2 June; after regrouping it is
    beginning to prepare the defense of the coastline in the sector DZIWNÓW,
    KOLOBRZEG.
    B. The 6th Army (USSR Armed Forces)
  • under the guise of preparations to carry out work on behalf of the economy the 2nd
    msd was brought up to strength by 25 May; together with the allocated engineer forces
    it is making engineering preparations of the second and third positions in the main
    defensive zone in the sector ZAGAN, PIENSK;
  • the 1st td was brought up to wartime strength starting 23 May and is training at the
    ZAGAN Training Area;
  • on 26 May the 3rd msd and on 30 May the 4th msd were brought up to wartime strength
    and brought into readiness at permanently deployed areas.
    C. The 3rd Army (Czechoslovak National Army)
  • the 31st td was brought up to wartime strength on 25 May and beginning 30 May it is
    making engineering preparations of positions in the main defensive zone together with a
    battalion of engineer vehicles of the 3rd isbr in the sector SLUBICE, GUBIN;
  • beginning 24 May the 33rd msd is conducting planned training at the WEDRZYN
    Training Area;
  • on 28 May the 32nd msd and on 31 May the 34th msd were brought up to wartime
    strength and began training in garrison areas to be brought into readiness for
    operations.
    D. The 8th Army (Polish Armed Forces)
  • at the instruction of the Chief of the General Staff of the Polish Armed Forces by 26
    May the system of mobilization expansion of Army formations and units was inspected
    and mobilization documentation amplified;
  • under the guise of a planned exercise formations and units of the missile troops, air
    defense, REhB, and intelligence have been brought up to wartime strength and control
    posts have been provided; beginning 25 May they have been brought into readiness in
    reserve assembly areas or in training areas;
  • the 25th td has been brought up to wartime strength and is taking part in the Druzhba88 exercise at the DRAWSKI Training Area;
  • the training of the 21st td is underway at the Orzysz Training Area.
    E. The 11th vdbr
  • after the brigade was brought up to wartime strength it was brought into readiness at
    the reserve assembly area.
    F. The 12th Coastal Defense Brigade
  • it was brought up to wartime strength by 25 May under the guise of joint exercises with
    the Navy and is being brought into readiness in permanently deployed locations.
    G. The 41st rmd [expansion unknown, but presumably a division, possibly a reserve
    mechanized division]
  • the formation of two mechanized regiments, communications, and air defense subunits
    began on 2 June.
    In reconnaissance forces
    Electronic intelligence units are reconnoitering the armed forces of the “BLUES” at the
    indicated lines [rubezhakh].
    Special reconnaissance units and subunits are conducting training in combat teamwork
    and are being brought into readiness for action.
    Reconnaissance aircraft are conducting intensified reconnaissance along the coastline
    and the western border of Poland.
    In REhB forces
    The 24th op-N [expansion unknown] and 8th op-N have been conducting training in
    combat teamwork at the MUSZAKI Training Area since 26 May.
    The remaining REhB units are conducting intensified training in garrison. Ten percent of
    REhB resources are on a round-the-clock watch.
    In Missile Troops and Artillery
    The formations of operational tactical missiles, field missile technical bases, the 8th
    apabr [Army Field Gun Artillery Brigade], the 21st ap BM [Heavy Artillery Regiment],
    and the 15th aiptap [Army Anti-Tank Artillery Regiment] in permanently deployed
    locations were brought up to wartime strength by 28 May.
    [The following] were brought up to wartime strength and deployed by 29 May:
  • the 15th apabr and the 15th Artillery Reconnaissance Regiment (oapr) in border regions
    in the zone of the 2nd Army;
  • the 6th apabr and the 6th apar in border regions in the zone of the 6th Army;
  • the 3rd apar in firing positions west of Rzepin.
    [The following] are undergoing training in training areas:
  • the 3rd apabr and 3rd adnar [possibly “Artillery Reconnaissance Battalion”] since 27
    May at the Wedrzyn Training Area;
  • the 6th orap [Independent Aerial Reconnaissance Regiment] has been at the Zagan
    Training Area since 26 May;
  • the 15th orap is taking part in the Druzhba-88 exercise.
    The remaining missile and artillery frontal and Army formations and units are being
    brought into readiness by 2 June for operations in permanently deployed locations and
    assembly areas.
    9K714 [Oka tactical] missile battalions have been on alert since 25 May in garrison
    training areas.
    Tactical missile battalions and reconnaissance/strike and fire groups of first echelon
    formations are being brought into readiness in assembly areas.
    Conventionally-armed missiles will be delivered to rendezvous points (PV) by 0400 4
    June in order to train the allocated forces of the missile troop and artillery for a air
    defense operation:
  • to PV-1 – WEGORZEWO – four operational-tactical [missiles] and 16 tactical (4 [of
    them] “T”);
  • to PV-2 – WRONKI – eight operational-tactical;
  • to PV-3 – SWIEBODZIN – 12 tactical (4 [of them] “T”);
  • to PV-4 – RUDNA – 27, including 11 operational-tactical and 16 tactical (4 [of them]
    “T”).
    In the air forces
    Training in the combat teamwork of the operations of tactical groups is being conducted
    in formations and units. Airborne command posts were rebased from army aviation units
    to the landing fields of the respective HQs by 2 June where they are being kept in
    combat readiness Nº 2.
    The preparation of AUD [airfield sections of roads] for the dispersion of aircraft has been
    completed. The forward ground support echelons at all airfields have been brought into
    readiness for regrouping at the indicated airfields or at intermediate assembly areas.
    The second echelons are providing support to the air regiments’ missions.
    Aviation ammunition has been stored up to full scale in aircraft parking areas in
    readiness for immediate mounting.
    In the air defense troops
    By 2 June the air forces and air defense forces SKP [possibly “launch command post”]
    of the front and the SKP of Army aviation and air defense had been regrouped to the
    designated areas and maintained in readiness.
    First echelon SAM and radiotechnical units of the Front and armies have been
    regrouped from permanently deployed locations to designated areas and brought into
    readiness in accordance with decisions made in the Front, armies, and formations.
    The 8th zrp and air defense units of the 8th Army have been brought up to wartime
    strength and brought into readiness at permanently deployed locations.
    The radiotechnical troops of the air defense of the ground forces began to work on
    wartime radio frequencies beginning at 0800 2 June.
    [The following] are on combat alert in the air defense system:
  • in SAM regiments (zenap) – one battery each in readiness Nº 2 and one battery each
    in readiness Nº 3;
  • in SAM brigades [and] the Krug zrp – one battalion each (less two batteries) in
    readiness Nº 2 and one battalion (less two batteries) in readiness Nº 3.
    In engineer troops
    By 26 May engineer units which were performing work on behalf of the economy had
    returned to their garrisons.
    [The following] were brought up to wartime strength and into readiness at permanently
    deployed locations under the guise of preparations for an exercise:
  • by 30 May, the 6th and 15th isbr’s, the 6th and 15th pomp’s, the 6th itp [Engineering and
    Technical Regiment], the 29th ib PU [Engineer Battalion for Equipping Control Posts],
    and the 220th Fortification Regiment;
  • by 2 June, the 3rd and 21st isbr’s and the 3rd itp.
    Minelaying equipment and mines are being issued and distributed from centrallysubordinate depots.
    Subunits of engineer vehicles of first echelon armies together with combined-arms
    formations began the fortification of lines in the main defense zone beginning 31 May.
    The 220th Fortification Regiment together with detachments for engineer preparation of
    the terrain began the engineering preparation of blocking positions and front line
    positions.
    The 283rd maskb [Camouflage Battalion] was brought into readiness by 26 May and
    began the construction of dummy areas in accordance with the Front plan.
    In the chemical troops
    [The following] have been brought into readiness under the guise of preparations for
    exercises:
  • the RAST [computation and analysis station] and rear RAST of the Front and armies in
    areas where Front and army control posts are deployed, by 26 May;
  • radiation and chemical reconnaissance subunits were brought up to wartime strength
    and into readiness for operations in assembly areas by 29 May.
    The peacetime system of radiation and chemical reconnaissance began operating in the
    country beginning 1 June.
    In signal troops
    Under the guise of preparations for exercises signals troops regrouped in areas where
    Front, army, and formation control posts are deployed by 28 May. Communications
    centers were ready for operation by 31 May.
    Radio, radiorelay, and cable communications have been organized. Satellite and
    troposphere communications have been readied for operation. Communications on
    wartime frequencies have been organized in all troop arms.
    In the services of the rear
    Planned measures are being carried out for the timely and complete deployment of the
    men and equipment of the operational rear and the organization of a field system of
    supply on behalf of the troops of the 3rd Front.
    The rear control posts of the 3rd Front, 2nd, 3rd, 6th, and 8th Armies, and the rear
    formations and units of the 3rd Army (3rd omo [Independent Medical Detachment], and
    6th Army (6th mbu [Medical Reinforcement Brigade] were deployed by 0800 2 June.
    Full-scale mobile and operational reserves have been stockpiled in line units [v
    voyskakh]. Current supply of the troops is done from working stocks at garrison depots.
    Materiel resources are loaded onto combat vehicles and the transport vehicles of first
    echelon formations.
    Preparatory measures are being taken at military depots and the bases of the economy
    for a mass issue, loading, and distribution of material resources.
    Readiness to carry out missions to ensure the survivability of the transportation system
    (transshipment points, ports, approaches to crossings] has been verified.
    The preparedness of transportation resources (vehicles, trailers, rolling stock, ships)
    has been inspected and the priority of their movement (transfer by the armed forces)
    when making massive military shipments has been verified. The technical
    documentation of the construction of parallel bridges and crossings has been checked
    as well as the technical condition of bridges.
    Organizational measures for a continuous supply of nurses for the military medical
    service have been completed. Evacuation hospital equipment has been supplemented.
    Restrictions on the use of fuel have been introduced in the economy.
    Blood bank supplies at civilian donor stations intended for immediate delivery to the
    armed forces have been inspected.
    In the technical services
    The 23rd FRB was brought up to strength within the framework of planned exercises by
    24 May and sent to the TORUN Training Area where it is undergoing training in combat
    teamwork and special training.
    The organizational nucleus [orgyadro] for the 22nd FRB and 21st GFRB [expansion
    unknown] was called up by 28 May.
    Equipment received from the economy is being inspected.
    The 225th and 228th orpdn [Independent Missile Transportation Battalion] have been
    brought into readiness to receive missiles and to leave for the designated areas.
    Beginning 2 June under the guise of preparations for exercises, it began to be brought
    up to wartime strength at the location of permanent deployment of the 6th ARB.
    THE COMBINED BALTIC FLEET
    In accordance with a directive of the Commander of the OBF, the headquarters of the
    USSR BF [Baltic Fleet], Polish Navy, and GDR Peoples Navy have updated [utochnili]
    plans to defend the coastline.
    The allocated strike, anti-mine, and other support forces returned to their bases by 2000
    1 June after completing exercises and training launches of missiles. It is intended to
    complete the training of a combined ship squadron by 5 June. The plans for the
    coordination between the HQs of fleets and concerned formations have been updated.
    Naval reconnaissance forces (ship, aircraft, and radioelectronic) have been conducting
    continuous tracking of the operations of groups of ships of the Western Baltic fleet.
    Twenty-five percent of the water crossing equipment [plavsredstva] has been received
    from the economy. Sixty percent of the preparatory work on them has been done. Work
    is being done to rapidly deploy ships undergoing repair. Fifty percent of the ships have
    been demothballed by the crews. Work is continuing on the rest.
    Crews are being urgently trained for ships coming on line. The forces that perform
    verification trawling of coastal channels and the PLO forces to search and track
    submarines of the Western Baltic fleet have been augmented. Rear and technical
    support formations and units are being brought into readiness and are distributing
    reserves of material resources. They are deploying a system of temporary basing,
    supply, repair, and support to the forces in the areas in which they are serving.
    Internal troops, territorial defense troops, and forces of the Ministry of Internal Affairs
  1. At the instruction of the Chairman of the Defense Committee of the Country, the
    internal troops, territorial defense troops, and forces of the Ministry of Internal Affairs
    achieved readiness for operation by 30 May.
    Beginning 1 June the defense of seaports and airports was strengthened, as well as
    [these] borders:
  • northern – by the forces of the Baltic Border Troops Brigade (Baltic br PV);
  • western – by the forces of the Maritime, [Liubuski], and [Lurzicki] br PV.
  • southern – by the forces of the Sudety and [Gornoslenski] br PV.
    The border troops were subordinated to the Commanding General of the 3rd Front by 2
    June.
    Units of the internal troops and territorial defense troops had returned to MPD [their
    permanently deployed locations] by 26 May and are undergoing training in combat
    teamwork exercises in barracks-like [prikazarmennye] training grounds.
  1. Locations of permanent deployment
    Number Formations, units Location
    1
    2
    3.
    4.
    5.
    6.
    1.
    2.
    3.
    1.
    2.
    1.
    2.
    3.
    4.
    5.
    6.
    Baltic brPV
    Maritime brPV
    [LIUBUSKI] brPV
    [LURZICKI] brPV
    SUDETY brPV
    [GORNOSLENSKI]
    19th Internal Troops
    Brigade (brVnV)
    10th brVnV
    6th brVnV
    Warsaw Territorial
    Defense Brigade (brTO)
    Katowice brTO
    Wielkopolski Territorial
    Defense Regiment (pTO)
    Szczecin pTO
    Wroclaw pTO
    Krakow pTO
    Gdansk pTO
    Kielce pTO
    KOSZALIN
    SZCZECIN
    KROSNO ODRZANSKIE
    LUBAN
    KLODZKO
    GLIWICE
    OLSZTYN
    KRAKÓW
    GÓRA KALWARIA
    WARSAW
    KATOWICE
    POZNAN
    SZCZECIN
    WROCLAW
    KRAKÓW
    GDANSK
    KIELCE
  2. Authorized organizational structure
    A. PV brigades (brPV)
  • HQ and staff;
  • two border guards battalions of 400 men each;
  • a maneuver battalion (of four companies);
    Total: 1260 men.
    Border troops battalion
  • HQ and staff;
  • six PV companies (rPV) of 60 men each;
    Total: 400 men.
    B. Brigade of internal troops (brVnV)
  • HQ and staff;
  • four infantry battalions;
  • a signals battalion;
  • a reconnaissance battalion;
  • an engineer battalion;
    Total: 1800 men.
    C Territorial defense brigade (brTO)
  • HQ and staff;
  • six TO battalions of 400 men each;
    Total: 2,500 men
    D. Territorial defense regiment
  • HQ and staff;
  • seven TO companies of 100 men each;
    Total: 760 men.
    EXERCISE CONTROL STAFF

Exposed – MILITARY EXERCISE SHCHIT-88 OPERATIONAL SUMMARY NO. 1 FOR THE PERIOD 0800 25 MAY TO 0800 2 JUNE 1988

Quellbild anzeigen

DOCUMENT SUMMARY
This document describes Warsaw Pact military exercises conducted between 25 May and 2 June 1988. Summarized in detail, the comprehensive exercise brought all facets of the combined forces to “wartime strength” in response to a theoretical threat posed by NATO.

SUBJECTS DISCUSSED
Warsaw Treaty Organization–Armed Forces
Warsaw Treaty Organization
North Atlantic Treaty Organization
LOCATIONS DISCUSSED
Czechoslovakia
East Germany
Eastern Europe
Poland
Russia

[Source: Institute of National Remembrance (IPNBU) 1408/2. Translated for CWIHP by
Gary Goldberg.]
[letterhead] GENERAL STAFF OF THE POLISH ARMED FORCES
Deliver at 0800 2 June SECRET
Copy Nº 4
Exercise
[Original Polish receipt and
declassification stamps]
OPERATIONAL SUMMARY
Nº 1
(for the period 0800 25 May to 0800 2 June 1988)
Warsaw
1988
OPERATIONAL SUMMARY Nº 1
for the period 0800 25 May to 0800 2 June 1988

  1. In accordance with the growing threat of the “BLUES”, the “REDS” performed a
    covert operational deployment of selected formations and units in [their] armed forces.
    The following measures were performed within the framework of general preparations:
  • the dispatch of servicemen and reserves to military schools, courses, retraining, and
    command-staff training has been stopped; servicemen in courses are being recalled to
    their units;
  • troops in temporary locations are being recalled to their garrisons with the exception of
    formations at wartime strength and undergoing training (exercises) at training areas;
  • at the instruction of the Chief of the General Staff of the Polish Armed Forces the
    formation of detachments for engineer preparation of the terrain began on 1 June and
    which will be made ready to carry out work on behalf of the 3rd Front beginning [inserted
    by hand: 2] June.
  • [the following] have been deployed at field control posts: by 1 June, the staff of the 3rd
    Front, by 0800 2 June, the staffs of the 2nd, 3rd, 6th, and 8th Armies;
  • by 26 May formations and units have been inspected for the deployment of elements
    of the mobilization base;
  • the discharge of reservists being trained has been halted. Equipment received from
    the economy has been left in the units;
  • since 1 June aircraft and helicopters received from the economy are being accepted
    and reequipped;
  • beginning 26 May a 24-hour watch has been established in all the armed forces and
    also in military commissariats; [there are] full shifts in national air defense troops and at
    the remaining HQs – reduced [shifts];
  • the border forces and selected units of the Ministry of Internal Affairs have increased
    security at the border, airfields, and seaports.
  1. According to a 25 May directive of the GK OVS in the Western TVD he has planned a
    frontal defensive operation for 1 June. In response to the actions of the “BLUES” the
    forces allocated from the 2nd, 3rd, and 6th Armies and also the engineer troops are
    preparing defensive positions in the main defensive zone.
    At the instruction of the Chief of the General Staff of the Polish Armed Forces the
    allocated combined-arms units, air forces, navy, missile troops and artillery, and REhB,
    intelligence, and communications have been brought up to wartime strength under the
    guise of an exercise and work on behalf of the economy and into full combat readiness
    in permanently deployed locations or contingency [neplanovye] areas.
    A. The 2nd Army (GDR Peoples Army)
  • by 25 May the 11th msd had been brought up to wartime strength and beginning on 31
    May together with a battalion of engineer vehicles it began engineer preparations of the
    2nd and 3rd positions of the main defensive zone in the sector south of SZCZECIN and
    BARLINEK;
  • on 25 May the Druzhba-88 exercise began at the DRAWSKI training area in which the
    18th msd, 25th td (of the 8th Army), and missile troops and artillery of the Army are
    participating;
  • [the following] have been brought up to wartime strength under the guise of
    preparations for an exercise: by 28 May, the 19th td; by 30 May, the 30th msd. The
    formations are being brought into readiness in permanently deployed locations and are
    undergoing training in combat teamwork [slazhivanie] in garrison training centers.
  • the 29th msd was brought up to wartime strength by 2 June; after regrouping it is
    beginning to prepare the defense of the coastline in the sector DZIWNÓW,
    KOLOBRZEG.
    B. The 6th Army (USSR Armed Forces)
  • under the guise of preparations to carry out work on behalf of the economy the 2nd
    msd was brought up to strength by 25 May; together with the allocated engineer forces
    it is making engineering preparations of the second and third positions in the main
    defensive zone in the sector ZAGAN, PIENSK;
  • the 1st td was brought up to wartime strength starting 23 May and is training at the
    ZAGAN Training Area;
  • on 26 May the 3rd msd and on 30 May the 4th msd were brought up to wartime strength
    and brought into readiness at permanently deployed areas.
    C. The 3rd Army (Czechoslovak National Army)
  • the 31st td was brought up to wartime strength on 25 May and beginning 30 May it is
    making engineering preparations of positions in the main defensive zone together with a
    battalion of engineer vehicles of the 3rd isbr in the sector SLUBICE, GUBIN;
  • beginning 24 May the 33rd msd is conducting planned training at the WEDRZYN
    Training Area;
  • on 28 May the 32nd msd and on 31 May the 34th msd were brought up to wartime
    strength and began training in garrison areas to be brought into readiness for
    operations.
    D. The 8th Army (Polish Armed Forces)
  • at the instruction of the Chief of the General Staff of the Polish Armed Forces by 26
    May the system of mobilization expansion of Army formations and units was inspected
    and mobilization documentation amplified;
  • under the guise of a planned exercise formations and units of the missile troops, air
    defense, REhB, and intelligence have been brought up to wartime strength and control
    posts have been provided; beginning 25 May they have been brought into readiness in
    reserve assembly areas or in training areas;
  • the 25th td has been brought up to wartime strength and is taking part in the Druzhba88 exercise at the DRAWSKI Training Area;
  • the training of the 21st td is underway at the Orzysz Training Area.
    E. The 11th vdbr
  • after the brigade was brought up to wartime strength it was brought into readiness at
    the reserve assembly area.
    F. The 12th Coastal Defense Brigade
  • it was brought up to wartime strength by 25 May under the guise of joint exercises with
    the Navy and is being brought into readiness in permanently deployed locations.
    G. The 41st rmd [expansion unknown, but presumably a division, possibly a reserve
    mechanized division]
  • the formation of two mechanized regiments, communications, and air defense subunits
    began on 2 June.
    In reconnaissance forces
    Electronic intelligence units are reconnoitering the armed forces of the “BLUES” at the
    indicated lines [rubezhakh].
    Special reconnaissance units and subunits are conducting training in combat teamwork
    and are being brought into readiness for action.
    Reconnaissance aircraft are conducting intensified reconnaissance along the coastline
    and the western border of Poland.
    In REhB forces
    The 24th op-N [expansion unknown] and 8th op-N have been conducting training in
    combat teamwork at the MUSZAKI Training Area since 26 May.
    The remaining REhB units are conducting intensified training in garrison. Ten percent of
    REhB resources are on a round-the-clock watch.
    In Missile Troops and Artillery
    The formations of operational tactical missiles, field missile technical bases, the 8th
    apabr [Army Field Gun Artillery Brigade], the 21st ap BM [Heavy Artillery Regiment],
    and the 15th aiptap [Army Anti-Tank Artillery Regiment] in permanently deployed
    locations were brought up to wartime strength by 28 May.
    [The following] were brought up to wartime strength and deployed by 29 May:
  • the 15th apabr and the 15th Artillery Reconnaissance Regiment (oapr) in border regions
    in the zone of the 2nd Army;
  • the 6th apabr and the 6th apar in border regions in the zone of the 6th Army;
  • the 3rd apar in firing positions west of Rzepin.
    [The following] are undergoing training in training areas:
  • the 3rd apabr and 3rd adnar [possibly “Artillery Reconnaissance Battalion”] since 27
    May at the Wedrzyn Training Area;
  • the 6th orap [Independent Aerial Reconnaissance Regiment] has been at the Zagan
    Training Area since 26 May;
  • the 15th orap is taking part in the Druzhba-88 exercise.
    The remaining missile and artillery frontal and Army formations and units are being
    brought into readiness by 2 June for operations in permanently deployed locations and
    assembly areas.
    9K714 [Oka tactical] missile battalions have been on alert since 25 May in garrison
    training areas.
    Tactical missile battalions and reconnaissance/strike and fire groups of first echelon
    formations are being brought into readiness in assembly areas.
    Conventionally-armed missiles will be delivered to rendezvous points (PV) by 0400 4
    June in order to train the allocated forces of the missile troop and artillery for a air
    defense operation:
  • to PV-1 – WEGORZEWO – four operational-tactical [missiles] and 16 tactical (4 [of
    them] “T”);
  • to PV-2 – WRONKI – eight operational-tactical;
  • to PV-3 – SWIEBODZIN – 12 tactical (4 [of them] “T”);
  • to PV-4 – RUDNA – 27, including 11 operational-tactical and 16 tactical (4 [of them]
    “T”).
    In the air forces
    Training in the combat teamwork of the operations of tactical groups is being conducted
    in formations and units. Airborne command posts were rebased from army aviation units
    to the landing fields of the respective HQs by 2 June where they are being kept in
    combat readiness Nº 2.
    The preparation of AUD [airfield sections of roads] for the dispersion of aircraft has been
    completed. The forward ground support echelons at all airfields have been brought into
    readiness for regrouping at the indicated airfields or at intermediate assembly areas.
    The second echelons are providing support to the air regiments’ missions.
    Aviation ammunition has been stored up to full scale in aircraft parking areas in
    readiness for immediate mounting.
    In the air defense troops
    By 2 June the air forces and air defense forces SKP [possibly “launch command post”]
    of the front and the SKP of Army aviation and air defense had been regrouped to the
    designated areas and maintained in readiness.
    First echelon SAM and radiotechnical units of the Front and armies have been
    regrouped from permanently deployed locations to designated areas and brought into
    readiness in accordance with decisions made in the Front, armies, and formations.
    The 8th zrp and air defense units of the 8th Army have been brought up to wartime
    strength and brought into readiness at permanently deployed locations.
    The radiotechnical troops of the air defense of the ground forces began to work on
    wartime radio frequencies beginning at 0800 2 June.
    [The following] are on combat alert in the air defense system:
  • in SAM regiments (zenap) – one battery each in readiness Nº 2 and one battery each
    in readiness Nº 3;
  • in SAM brigades [and] the Krug zrp – one battalion each (less two batteries) in
    readiness Nº 2 and one battalion (less two batteries) in readiness Nº 3.
    In engineer troops
    By 26 May engineer units which were performing work on behalf of the economy had
    returned to their garrisons.
    [The following] were brought up to wartime strength and into readiness at permanently
    deployed locations under the guise of preparations for an exercise:
  • by 30 May, the 6th and 15th isbr’s, the 6th and 15th pomp’s, the 6th itp [Engineering and
    Technical Regiment], the 29th ib PU [Engineer Battalion for Equipping Control Posts],
    and the 220th Fortification Regiment;
  • by 2 June, the 3rd and 21st isbr’s and the 3rd itp.
    Minelaying equipment and mines are being issued and distributed from centrallysubordinate depots.
    Subunits of engineer vehicles of first echelon armies together with combined-arms
    formations began the fortification of lines in the main defense zone beginning 31 May.
    The 220th Fortification Regiment together with detachments for engineer preparation of
    the terrain began the engineering preparation of blocking positions and front line
    positions.
    The 283rd maskb [Camouflage Battalion] was brought into readiness by 26 May and
    began the construction of dummy areas in accordance with the Front plan.
    In the chemical troops
    [The following] have been brought into readiness under the guise of preparations for
    exercises:
  • the RAST [computation and analysis station] and rear RAST of the Front and armies in
    areas where Front and army control posts are deployed, by 26 May;
  • radiation and chemical reconnaissance subunits were brought up to wartime strength
    and into readiness for operations in assembly areas by 29 May.
    The peacetime system of radiation and chemical reconnaissance began operating in the
    country beginning 1 June.
    In signal troops
    Under the guise of preparations for exercises signals troops regrouped in areas where
    Front, army, and formation control posts are deployed by 28 May. Communications
    centers were ready for operation by 31 May.
    Radio, radiorelay, and cable communications have been organized. Satellite and
    troposphere communications have been readied for operation. Communications on
    wartime frequencies have been organized in all troop arms.
    In the services of the rear
    Planned measures are being carried out for the timely and complete deployment of the
    men and equipment of the operational rear and the organization of a field system of
    supply on behalf of the troops of the 3rd Front.
    The rear control posts of the 3rd Front, 2nd, 3rd, 6th, and 8th Armies, and the rear
    formations and units of the 3rd Army (3rd omo [Independent Medical Detachment], and
    6th Army (6th mbu [Medical Reinforcement Brigade] were deployed by 0800 2 June.
    Full-scale mobile and operational reserves have been stockpiled in line units [v
    voyskakh]. Current supply of the troops is done from working stocks at garrison depots.
    Materiel resources are loaded onto combat vehicles and the transport vehicles of first
    echelon formations.
    Preparatory measures are being taken at military depots and the bases of the economy
    for a mass issue, loading, and distribution of material resources.
    Readiness to carry out missions to ensure the survivability of the transportation system
    (transshipment points, ports, approaches to crossings] has been verified.
    The preparedness of transportation resources (vehicles, trailers, rolling stock, ships)
    has been inspected and the priority of their movement (transfer by the armed forces)
    when making massive military shipments has been verified. The technical
    documentation of the construction of parallel bridges and crossings has been checked
    as well as the technical condition of bridges.
    Organizational measures for a continuous supply of nurses for the military medical
    service have been completed. Evacuation hospital equipment has been supplemented.
    Restrictions on the use of fuel have been introduced in the economy.
    Blood bank supplies at civilian donor stations intended for immediate delivery to the
    armed forces have been inspected.
    In the technical services
    The 23rd FRB was brought up to strength within the framework of planned exercises by
    24 May and sent to the TORUN Training Area where it is undergoing training in combat
    teamwork and special training.
    The organizational nucleus [orgyadro] for the 22nd FRB and 21st GFRB [expansion
    unknown] was called up by 28 May.
    Equipment received from the economy is being inspected.
    The 225th and 228th orpdn [Independent Missile Transportation Battalion] have been
    brought into readiness to receive missiles and to leave for the designated areas.
    Beginning 2 June under the guise of preparations for exercises, it began to be brought
    up to wartime strength at the location of permanent deployment of the 6th ARB.
    THE COMBINED BALTIC FLEET
    In accordance with a directive of the Commander of the OBF, the headquarters of the
    USSR BF [Baltic Fleet], Polish Navy, and GDR Peoples Navy have updated [utochnili]
    plans to defend the coastline.
    The allocated strike, anti-mine, and other support forces returned to their bases by 2000
    1 June after completing exercises and training launches of missiles. It is intended to
    complete the training of a combined ship squadron by 5 June. The plans for the
    coordination between the HQs of fleets and concerned formations have been updated.
    Naval reconnaissance forces (ship, aircraft, and radioelectronic) have been conducting
    continuous tracking of the operations of groups of ships of the Western Baltic fleet.
    Twenty-five percent of the water crossing equipment [plavsredstva] has been received
    from the economy. Sixty percent of the preparatory work on them has been done. Work
    is being done to rapidly deploy ships undergoing repair. Fifty percent of the ships have
    been demothballed by the crews. Work is continuing on the rest.
    Crews are being urgently trained for ships coming on line. The forces that perform
    verification trawling of coastal channels and the PLO forces to search and track
    submarines of the Western Baltic fleet have been augmented. Rear and technical
    support formations and units are being brought into readiness and are distributing
    reserves of material resources. They are deploying a system of temporary basing,
    supply, repair, and support to the forces in the areas in which they are serving.
    Internal troops, territorial defense troops, and forces of the Ministry of Internal Affairs
  1. At the instruction of the Chairman of the Defense Committee of the Country, the
    internal troops, territorial defense troops, and forces of the Ministry of Internal Affairs
    achieved readiness for operation by 30 May.
    Beginning 1 June the defense of seaports and airports was strengthened, as well as
    [these] borders:
  • northern – by the forces of the Baltic Border Troops Brigade (Baltic br PV);
  • western – by the forces of the Maritime, [Liubuski], and [Lurzicki] br PV.
  • southern – by the forces of the Sudety and [Gornoslenski] br PV.
    The border troops were subordinated to the Commanding General of the 3rd Front by 2
    June.
    Units of the internal troops and territorial defense troops had returned to MPD [their
    permanently deployed locations] by 26 May and are undergoing training in combat
    teamwork exercises in barracks-like [prikazarmennye] training grounds.
  1. Locations of permanent deployment
    Number Formations, units Location
    1
    2
    3.
    4.
    5.
    6.
    1.
    2.
    3.
    1.
    2.
    1.
    2.
    3.
    4.
    5.
    6.
    Baltic brPV
    Maritime brPV
    [LIUBUSKI] brPV
    [LURZICKI] brPV
    SUDETY brPV
    [GORNOSLENSKI]
    19th Internal Troops
    Brigade (brVnV)
    10th brVnV
    6th brVnV
    Warsaw Territorial
    Defense Brigade (brTO)
    Katowice brTO
    Wielkopolski Territorial
    Defense Regiment (pTO)
    Szczecin pTO
    Wroclaw pTO
    Krakow pTO
    Gdansk pTO
    Kielce pTO
    KOSZALIN
    SZCZECIN
    KROSNO ODRZANSKIE
    LUBAN
    KLODZKO
    GLIWICE
    OLSZTYN
    KRAKÓW
    GÓRA KALWARIA
    WARSAW
    KATOWICE
    POZNAN
    SZCZECIN
    WROCLAW
    KRAKÓW
    GDANSK
    KIELCE
  2. Authorized organizational structure
    A. PV brigades (brPV)
  • HQ and staff;
  • two border guards battalions of 400 men each;
  • a maneuver battalion (of four companies);
    Total: 1260 men.
    Border troops battalion
  • HQ and staff;
  • six PV companies (rPV) of 60 men each;
    Total: 400 men.
    B. Brigade of internal troops (brVnV)
  • HQ and staff;
  • four infantry battalions;
  • a signals battalion;
  • a reconnaissance battalion;
  • an engineer battalion;
    Total: 1800 men.
    C Territorial defense brigade (brTO)
  • HQ and staff;
  • six TO battalions of 400 men each;
    Total: 2,500 men
    D. Territorial defense regiment
  • HQ and staff;
  • seven TO companies of 100 men each;
    Total: 760 men.
    EXERCISE CONTROL STAFF

Unvealed – MILITARY EXERCISE SHCHIT-88 OPERATIONAL SUMMARY NO. 2 FOR THE PERIOD 0800 2 JUNE TO 1900 6 JUNE 1988

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Secret

Copy Nº 4

Exercise Shchit [Shield]-88

[Original Polish receipt and

declassification stamps]

OPERATIONAL SUMMARY Nº 2

for the period 0800 2 June to 1900 6 June 1988

  1. Beginning at 1900 4 June, the BLUES, performing an operational deployment of troops under the guise of preparations for a strategic defensive exercise, began to create strike groupings in the immediate proximity to the border with the REDS.

By 0800 6 June selected missile troops, artillery, and air units were brought into readiness at launch and firing positions. Reserve airfields and road sections designated as runways have been prepared to accept aircraft.

Units assigned to protect the border have begun to form march columns in the areas they occupy.

At 1900 6 June a full combat alert was declared in all the armed forces.

  1. In response to the measures by the BLUES, the REDS accelerated the operational development of troops, especially the occupation of more advantageous areas and operational deployment areas.

The resources designed to launch a retaliatory missile and air strike were brought into full combat readiness at alternate launch and firing positions by 0800 6 June.

  1. Large formations, formations, and units of the 3rd Front are at permanently deployed locations, alert assembly areas, and operational deployment and defensive areas. Beginning 1900 6 June they have been brought into readiness in accordance with mobilization and operational deployment plans and the decisions of the commanders and chiefs of the troop arms and services taking part in the exercise.

EXERCISE CONTROL STAFF

DOCUMENT SUMMARY
This document describes a Warsaw Pact military exercise known as Shield-88. The exercise addresses a theoretical scenario in which NATO forces suddenly prepare to launch an attack on Warsaw Pact territory.

SUBJECTS DISCUSSED
Warsaw Treaty Organization–Armed Forces
Warsaw Treaty Organization–Military policy
Warsaw Treaty Organization
LOCATIONS DISCUSSED
Eastern Europe

Exposed – MILITARY EXERCISE SHCHIT-88 INFORMATION SUMMARY NO. 1 AS OF 0800 2 JUNE 1988

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[letterhead] General Staff of the Polish Armed Forces

SECRET

Copy Nº 4

Exercise

[Original Polish receipt and

declassification stamps]

MAIN POLITICAL DIRECTORATE OF THE POLISH ARMY

INFORMATION SUMMARY Nº 1

(as of 0800 2 June 1988)

WARSAW

1988

MAIN POLITICAL DIRECTORATE OF THE POLISH ARMY

INFORMATION SUMMARY Nº 1

(as of 0800 2 June 1988)

THE INTERNATIONAL SITUATION

  1. The BLUES continue to extend a campaign of slander against the REDS, their allies, and supporters. They say that the REDS have upset the balance of forces and are seeking new conquests to distract their peoples’ attention away from economic difficulties. The governments of the REDS are allegedly rejecting all peace proposals and appeals from various organizations and people who enjoy worldwide respect.
  2. Hostile acts against diplomatic representatives of the REDS are increasing in the BLUE countries. In spite of this, diplomatic contacts of the countries united in opposing blocs are characterized by increased activity. Political representatives and leaders say that the purpose of their actions and efforts is to avert war.
  3. At a meeting of the UN Security Council convened on 12 June at their initiative the leaders of the REDS accused some BLUE countries of whipping up tension in Europe, increasing military-political interference in other regions of the world, and putting pressure on the governments of countries which are dependent on them. It was declared that their lying and slanderous propaganda against the REDS had gone far beyond the bounds of good practice in international relations and is evidence of an intent to aggravate relations and a desire to cover their own aggressive intentions and preparations.
  4. The governments of the BLUES are reinforcing the economic blockage of the RED countries. They are announcing or threatening to introduce an air and naval blockade of certain continental and ocean regions of the world. They are trying to subject the ships of some RED countries in these regions to illegal controls.
  5. The propaganda campaign of slander against the sociopolitical system and government leaders of the REDS is increasing. Along with this subversive centers are pursuing activity directed at dividing the public, exciting anti-social forces, and creating a political and subversive underground.
  6. In response to the increasing aggressiveness of the BLUES the leaders of the REDS published a joint statement which noted that “the only sensible outcome of the situation which has developed is the achievement of an agreement between the opposing groups”.

THE SITUATION IN THE COUNTRY

  1. The unfavorable influence of the international situation on the views and the mood of the population is being observed in all regions of the country. A reduction of interest in work is being noted at industrial enterprises. Nervousness, discord, disorganization, and a lowering of labor discipline are increasing among the managers of enterprises. There are increasingly fewer young people in class at higher educational institutions. In spite of appeals from authorities long lines are forming in front of stores, including people who should be working at the time. As regards the shortage of foods in Wroclaw, for example, there appeared calls for workers to “vigorously protest”, including striking. An increased movement of the population by rail and road is being observed. Telephone lines are overloaded. Malicious agitation and undesirable phenomena are increasing in the countryside. Almost all deliveries of agricultural products to purchase points have stopped. Speculation is increasing throughout the entire country.
  2. Subversive propaganda centers and anti-government underground activists are increasing activity directed at subverting the country’s defense policy and also at discrediting its armed forces and the ministry of internal affairs. The increased size of expenditures for defense in comparison with the scale of social needs is cited in radio broadcasts. The capabilities of the weapons and equipment of our Army are doubted and it is called a “hopeless army”. Hostile propaganda is increasing among workers calculated at generating protests against “work, wage, and standard of living” conditions and “the necessity of sticking to utopian solutions of the problem of the political system”.
  3. The hostility of views, moods, and statements of part of the population is increasing throughout the entire country, namely:

a) in some population centers attempts have been made to organize street demonstrations “in defense of freedom and peace”. Handbills are being distributed containing calls for the protection of people refusing to serve in the Army;

b) at some enterprises criticism and dissatisfaction with the supply of raw materials and resources is increasing;

Some of the workers say that “in view of the passivity of the authorities” who are not in control of the situation they ought to make decisions independently and also express the opinion that in the event war begins the authorities would not be able to ensure the normal functioning of the economy and public life;

c) handbills have been distributed in six industrial centers containing instructions to effectively put machines and production equipment out of commission;

d) pessimism is growing in all levels of society with respect to the possibility of a peaceful solution to contentious international problems. Part of the public is under the strong influence of malicious propaganda and does not see the possibility of a victory by the REDS in a possible war. The opinion is also expressed that our territory will be occupied by BLUE troops;

e) in some population centers acts of terrorism and sabotage with the use of small explosive charges have been committed (railroad stations, bus stations [avtostantsiya], stores, post offices). The population is demanding that authorities severely punish the guilty.

THE SITUATION IN THE ARMY

  1. The political attitudes, morale, and discipline of servicemen, especially regular army personnel, are good. Dedication and precision in carrying out assignments to maintain combat readiness are increasing. No negative phenomena are being observed in the sentiments in the Army. Individual statements and incidents encounter a vigorous rebuff from commanders.
  2. In spite of some nervousness, the personnel of command organizations exhibit a feeling of responsibility for the timely and meticulous accomplishment of assigned tasks. Increased educational work with soldiers, primarily with reservists, is being done by cadre personnel..
  3. Political organs are stepping up preparations for operations in combat conditions. They are successfully combating hostile influences on the personnel. Requests are coming from formations and units for relevant information about the military and political situation and for propaganda materials.

EXERCISE CONTROL STAFF

DOCUMENT SUMMARY
This document provides a scenario in which the “Blue” governments have engaged in a campaign of increasingly hostile propaganda intended to discredit the “Red” bloc socioeconomic system. Consequently, domestic morale is low. The population has grown pessimistic and, in light of the international situation, feels emboldened to challenge the Red authorities and leaders.

SUBJECTS DISCUSSED
Warsaw Treaty Organization–Armed Forces
Warsaw Treaty Organization–Military policy
Warsaw Treaty Organization
LOCATIONS DISCUSSED
Eastern Europe

INFORMATION ON THE ORDER OF IMPLEMENTING MILITARY TECHNICAL COOPERATION OF THE USSR WITH FOREIGN COUNTRIES

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On the order of implementing military technical cooperation of the USSR with foreign countries

1.Decisions on questions of military technical cooperation of the Soviet Union and foreign countries are made by the USSR Council of Ministers after approval by the CPSU Central Committee.

In accordance with Resolution No. 878-210 of the USSR Council of Ministers from July 30, 1987 “On measures to improve military technical cooperation with foreign countries,” consideration of concrete questions in this area is entrusted to the State Commission of the USSR Council of Ministers on Military-Industrial Questions.

2.In accordance with Resolution No. 320 of the USSR Council of Ministers from March 12, 1988 practical implementation of military technical cooperation with foreign countries is entrusted to the Ministry of Foreign Economic Connections (MVES). This cooperation is intended to ensure the USSR conducts a unified foreign economic policy and safeguards its interests in foreign arms markets and the effectiveness of cooperation
3.Resolution No. 191 of the USSR Council of Ministers from February 28, 1989 has determined the functions fulfilled by the MVES to implement military technical cooperation together with the USSR Ministry of Defense, the USSR Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Gosplan, and other relevant Ministries and agencies, including:

– Consideration of the manner of foreign countries’ handling of deliveries of special property and provision of technical cooperation in its mastery, operation, and application;

– Implementation of delivery of special and other property from the USSR for the needs of armies, internal affairs agencies, and state safety;

– Provision of technical cooperation to foreign countries in creation of special units;

– Financial and monetary planning in all forms of operations among participants in military technical cooperation with foreign countries;

– Planning and organization of transfers of special property, its insurance, and ensuring the safety of delivery;

– Implementation of activities to secure the state and state secrets in work conducted and other functions;

In relation to the foregoing, the USSR MVES reserves the right:

– To communicate within the framework of its competency with institutions, organizations, and authorities of foreign states in the same way within the USSR as abroad, and to assign them and accept technical materials, samples, and documents from them in established order.

– To conduct talks and sign agreements as ordered by the Soviet government with foreign countries and to provide signatures on contracts with corresponding organizations in other countries;

– To send Soviet specialists abroad in established order in order to carry out their accepted duties and receive foreign delegations.

The USSR MVES implements military technical cooperation through the Main Engineering Administration, the Main Technical Administration, and the Main Administration on Cooperation, which are independent domestic organizations of this Ministry with rights as legal entities.

Reference: The measures by which the state regulates foreign economic activities are determined by Resolution No. 203 of the USSR Council of Ministers from March 7, 1989, and it states that “Enterprises, unions, manufacturing cooperatives, and other Soviet organizations cannot export weapons, firearms, military equipment, explosive substances, nuclear materials… individual types of products and technologies that are used or may be used in the creation of weapons or military equipment, poisons, narcotics, or psychotropic substances… other types of products or services, whose export is forbidden, unless otherwise provided by legislation.”

DOCUMENT SUMMARY
List of responsibilities allocated to the USSR Council of Ministers, CPSU Central Committee, Ministry of Foreign Economic Connections, and other relevant ministries on issues relating to the implementation of military technical cooperation between the USSR and foreign countries.

SUBJECTS DISCUSSED
Warsaw Treaty Organization
Soviet Union–Military policy
LOCATIONS DISCUSSED
Soviet Union

LETTER FROM STALIN TO CDE. G. APRESOV, CONSUL GENERAL IN URUMQI

 

7 Atrocities Soviet Dictator Joseph Stalin Committed | HowStuffWorksCde. APRESOV!

Sheng Shicai’s letter made a depressing impression on our comrades. Only a provocateur or an hopeless “leftist” having no idea about Marxism could have written it. What could have happened that Sheng, having such an adviser as you, could have written us (me, Molotov, and Voroshilov) such a letter?

We are sending Sheng a suitable letter, but Cde. Svanidze will pass you a copy of our reply.

You should explain to Sheng the meaning of our reply and take steps so that the instructions given in our reply are followed.

I warn that if our instructions are not taken into consideration we will be forced to deny aid to Sheng.

The charter of the Union is not bad, but paragraph five about “equal rights” for women is not suitable for Xinjiang conditions and should be discarded.

Greetings!

I. STALIN.

27 July 1934

[a handwritten version of the above follows]

LETTER OF GOVERNOR SHICAI SHENG TO CDES. STALIN, MOLOTOV, AND VOROSHILOV

Sheng Shicai - Wikiwand

Governor Shicai Sheng expresses his firm belief in Communism, his desire to overthrow the Nanjing Government and construct a Communist state in its place, and the need to establish a Communist Party branch in Xinjiang. Emphasizing his long study of Marxist theory, he requests that Stalin, Molotov, and Voroshilov allow him to join the Communist Party.

CREATOR
SHENG, SHICAI, 1897-1970

SUBJECTS DISCUSSED
Molotov, Vyacheslav M.
Stalin, Joseph, 1879-1953
China–Politics and government–1912-1949
Communism–History–China
Xinjiang Uygur Zizhiqu (China)–History
Sheng, Shicai, 1897-1970
Voroshilov, Kliment Efremovich, 1881-1969
China (Republic)–Foreign relations–Soviet Union
More …
LOCATIONS DISCUSSED
Soviet Union
Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region

Archive.

I. Stalin

Top Secret

Translation from Chinese

LETTER OF GOVERNOR SHENG SHICAI TO CDES. STALIN, MOLOTOV, AND VOROSHILOV

1. In August 1932 I sent letters to the Comintern and Mr. Stalin in which I briefly laid out my world view.

2. In this [letter] I consider it my duty to express deep gratitude for the great assistance you have given in calming Xinjiang and killing the bandit, Ma Zhongying.

3. In spite of the fact that I still am not a member of the Communist Party I have engaged in the study of Marxism and my faith in the triumph of Communism was a consequence of the study of historical materialism, “Das Kapital”, “The Communist Manifesto”, and “Critique of the Gotha Program”, which gives me the ability not to put myself in the ranks of blind imitators or collaborators.

A. The main importance of historical materialism is in the scientific explanation and interpretation of social development, in the evidence for the need to reorganize society, and in pointing out the ways for this reorganization.

B. On the basis of scientific methods and firmly established laws [like] “the law of the fall of profit” “Das Kapital” shows the inevitable demise of the hated capitalistic system at a certain stage of its development and the inevitability of the rise of Communism. Then he reveals a picture of the exploitation of the workers by the capitalists and the perniciousness (harm, malignance) of the surplus value they have created, and which factors are the causes of the appearance of the socialist revolution.

MEMORANDUM FROM GENERAL VASILII CHUIKOV, PAVEL YUDIN, AND IVAN IL’ICHEV TO GEORGII MALENKOV CRITICALLY ASSESSING THE SITUATION IN THE GDR

Georgy Malenkov: what “heir” of Stalin went to Church – The Global Domain  News

Malenkov

 

MAY 18, 1953
MEMORANDUM FROM GENERAL VASILII CHUIKOV, PAVEL YUDIN, AND IVAN IL’ICHEV TO GEORGII MALENKOV CRITICALLY ASSESSING THE SITUATION IN THE GDR

 

SECRET
Copy No.

Soviet Control Commission in Germany

18 May 1953
pg. 00195

In the Presidium of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union

to Comrade G.M. Malenkov

In accordance with instructions from the CPSU CC, the Soviet Control Commission in Germany presents this report on the reasons for the departure of the population from the German Democratic Republic to West Germany, and also on proposals to end these departures.

In its note to the CPSU CC of 15 March 1953, the Soviet Control Commission in Germany delivered a detailed analysis of the economic and political situation of the German Democratic Republic.

Despite the general economic improvements and political strengthening of the GDR, the departure of the population from the GDR to West Germany is growing, as is confirmed by the data furnished below:

1951

1952

4 mo. of 1953

1. In all, number who left the GDR

160,560

165,571

120,531

Left illegally

99,797

136,065

120,109

Moved with permission

60,763

29,506

422

2. Arrived in the GDR from West Germany

27,372

24,012

3,589

 

By their social composition, those who have left the GDR fall into the following categories:

1951

1952

4 mo. of 1953

Workers

27,173

35,300

17,784

White-collar workers

12,098

22,022

13,156

Peasants

1,250

4,022

7,555

Intelligentsia

2,062

3,044

2,498

Students

No data

1,064

814

Other categories and family members

57,214

70,613

78,302

 

Detailed data on social and age composition are contained in Appendix No. 1.
Of this number, 320 persons exited across maritime and zonal borders during the [first] four months of 1953; the rest left through Berlin.
The increase in the number of persons moving from the GDR to West Germany can be explained by an intensification of the class struggle in the city and the countryside, and also by the fact that in the practical work of implementing major economic and political measures, administration often is substituted for political mass work, and certain ministries [and] local party and state organs commit gross errors and excesses in regard to different strata of the population.
After the Second Conference of the SED [in 1952], the government of the GDR and the SED CC took a number of important decisions aimed at limiting capitalist elements in industry and trade, as well as the kulak class in the countryside.
The most important measures on limiting capitalist elements in the city are:

– limiting the supply of raw materials, electric power, and fuel to private industrial enterprises, and goods to private commerce, as well as ending the sale of new industrial equipment, freight vehicles, vessels, and transport and fishing fleets to private enterprises;
– liquidating the majority of large private wholesale firms by administrative procedure under the pretext that they were violating the laws of the GDR;
– implementing special measures to combat speculation and [cutting off] links between private entrepreneurs and firms in West Berlin and West Germany, as well as forcibly closing the branches of West German and West Berlin firms in the democratic sector of Berlin and the GDR;
– canceling some tax advantages earlier granted to large private industrial enterprises on the basis of laws enacted before 1945, as well as intensifying the recovery of [tax] arrears;
– transferring the owners of enterprises employing more than five workers, rather than the existing [cut-off point of] 10 workers, from the category of artisans to the category of industrial enterprises, which has led to a significant increase in the tax burden on this group and to their exclusion from membership in the artisan guilds.

The most important measures to limit capitalist elements in the countryside are:

– raising the norms on compulsory supplies of meat as compared to 1952 and sharply increasing measures on forcible collections of all arrears, going as far as criminal indictments and the confiscation of property;
– kulak farms are the last to be given access to MTS vehicles, and tariffs on them are raised to the level of actual cost of the service [uroven’ sebestoimosti], which is twice what is paid by farms of under 20 hectares;
– supplying mineral fertilizers to kulak farms only after the needs of agricultural cooperatives and the working peasantry have been met in full, which in practice has led to a sharp reduction in the supply of phosphorous fertilizer to these farms;
– ending grants of long-term credits to kulaks and limiting grants of short-term credits;
– farms having 20 or more acres of land and two or more full-time workers are not accepted as members of agricultural production cooperatives.

In 1953, the compulsory use through MTSs of kulak farms’ tractors and agricultural machines (after they had finished their work in the fields) on other peasant farms, which has deprived large farms of the opportunity to lease their tractors and agricultural machines on terms that are profitable for them.
Excluding kulaks from the governing board[s] of peasant mutual-aid committees and agriculture trade cooperatives, where they had significant economic and political influence.
The Politburo of the SED CC passed a resolution on accepting land from kulak farmers who wish to give it to the state, while leaving 6-7 hectares at their [i.e. the farmers’] disposal, if these peasants so desire. This resolution, announced by Ulbricht at a congress of peasants at the beginning of February this year, was taken as an indication of increased pressure on the kulak class.
All of this led a portion of the peasantry, chiefly large [peasants], to begin to give up their land. On 1 April 1953, 442,8 thousand ha., or 7.3% of the entire arable agricultural area of all peasant farms, including 393,0 thousand ha. from farms having over 20 ha. land, or 26% of the agricultural area of these sorts of farms, were abandoned and vacant.
It should be noted that the measures to limit capitalist elements in the city and the countryside in many cases are implemented without sufficient political and economic preparation, as a result of which some party and governmental measures have found insufficient support among a significant portion of the populace.

II.

With the general rise in the standard of living of the populace, a disjunction between the growth of the populace’s money income and the growth of commodity circulation developed toward the beginning of 1953. The fund of wages paid out in the first quarter of 1953 was 17.3% greater than that of the first quarter of the previous year; the volume of commodity circulation over this period rose by only 10% at comparable prices, while commodity circulation in the first quarter of 1953 compared with the fourth quarter of 1952 shrank and consisted of 6.030 million marks against 7.361 million marks in the fourth quarter of 1952.
The under-fulfillment of the production plan for consumer goods in the absence of corresponding reserves and the non-fulfillment of the export-import plan, led to an acute shortage of goods in the commercial network. In this way, the elevated requirements of the population were not wholly satisfied.
Data about the fulfillment of the plan by industry in the first quarter is shown in Appendix No.2.
The autumn and winter of 1952-1953, which were difficult for the GDR, and the weak organization of harvest work led to a significant drop in the harvest of sugar beets, oil crops, potatoes and vegetables. Besides this, the unsatisfactory fulfillment of the plan for stockpiles and purchases of agricultural goods in 1952 led to difficulties in the supply of food to the populace.
This made it necessary to halt commercial sales of fats and sugar in the first quarter of 1953, to substitute partially rationed fats and sugar with other goods, to abolish ration cards for private-capitalist elements and persons of free professions (this affected about 500,000 people), to abolish some additional ration cards for the intelligentsia, and also to raise the prices for meat given out through ration cards by 10-15%, and for commercially sold confectioneries by 12-50%.
With the cancellation of ration cards for footwear and for knitted goods, the fixed price level [uroven’ edinykh tsen] was left close to the previously effective commercial prices. Prices were raised on a significant portion of imported consumer goods.
In the course of the entire winter period, interruptions in the supply of coal and electricity to the populace in the republic occurred, as a result of which many schools, residential buildings, and socio-cultural [kul’turno-bytovye] establishments often went unheated.

III.

Recently the government of the GDR made a series of decisions on strengthening punitive policies in the struggle against the theft of people’s property, on criminal sanctions for evading state agricultural quotas and taxes, on limiting the activity of private wholesale firms, and on purging certain regions of dubious elements of questionable class. These decisions are basically correct. However, during the implementation of these decisions manifold excesses are being committed, as is expressed in the intensification of different sorts of repressive measures in relation to the populace. As a result of [these actions] the number of arrests of citizens and convicted persons significantly increased: if in the first half-year of 1952, 11,346 arrests were carried out, [and] in the second half-year 17,471, then during just the first quarter of 1953, 14,348 arrests were carried out.
Detailed data are provided in Appendices No. 3, 4, and 5.
By the directive adopted by the GEC on 23 September 1948, “On punishments for violations of economic order,” which is currently in effect, the police are given the right broadly to carry out arrests and searches on the grounds of only suspicion of economic crimes. On the basis of this directive, in 1952, 16,482 proceedings were instituted and 4,185 persons were arrested. In 1953, in only the first quarter, 5,094 proceedings were instituted and 2,548 persons were arrested.
There are many cases of incorrect arrests, unlawful and groundless searches in apartments and offices, [and] violations of the established arrest and custody procedure.
On 1 April 1953, there were 54,876 persons in the jails of the GDR; of these, up to 13,141 had not yet had their cases reviewed by the courts.

IV.

Within the SED CC and in local party organs, there is an underestimation of the political significance of the populace’s departure from the GDR to West Germany. This underestimation has manifested itself, in particular, in the directives of the SED CC. Thus, in letters from 6 January and 30 April of this year, no political evaluation was made of the issue and no measures are planned which would help bring about a fundamental change in the situation. In CC directives, the departure of party members from the GDR is not characterized as a party crime. Meanwhile, 2,718 members and candidates of the SED, and of these, 175 functionaries, were counted among those who left the GDR during the [first] four months of 1953. In addition, over that period, 2,610 members of the Union of Youth [FDJ] left.
Party organs exert almost no influence over the mass democratic organs–labor unions, the Union of Youth, and the Women’s League–in inducing them to carry out work to prevent the departure of the population from the GDR.
The press and radio of the GDR weakly expose the slanderous propaganda emanating from West Germany about the refugees, weakly publicize the measures taken by the government of the GDR to accommodate refugees who have returned to the Republic, by giving them work [and] living quarters, and guaranteeing other rights to them, [and they] rarely organize statements by persons who have returned from West Germany. Newspapers, as a rule, remain silent about the facts of the migration of residents of West Germany to the GDR, and do not use their statements for propaganda purposes.
Party and governmental organs commit serious distortions in the implementation of the SED’s policy with regard to the intelligentsia.
In the second half of 1952, the SED CC and the GDR government undertook a series of economic and political measures aimed at drawing the intelligentsia into active participation in cultural and economic construction. From 1 July 1952, the pay for engineering-technical and scientific workers was significantly increased, and for the most outstanding scientific and technical personnel, high personal salaries of up to 15,000 marks a month were established.
Despite this, the role of the intelligentsia in building the Republic and the necessity of involving the old intelligentsia is still underestimated within the party and the country. In a significant portion of enterprises, a sectarian relationship to the intelligentsia has still not been overcome. The intelligentsia is not drawn into active participation in the productive and social life of the enterprise.
There are serious drawbacks in the way ideological work with the intelligentsia is handled. In a crude and clumsy manner, demands are made for the reconstruction of all scientific work on the basis of Marxism-Leninism. Due to this, scholars of the old school consider that, insofar as they are not Marxists, they have no prospects in the GDR.
Little attention is paid by the SED to organizing scientific discussions, to the free exchange of opinions, [and] the discussion of different problems in advanced science and practice, in the intelligentsia’s milieu.
To date, the linking and exchange of scientific activity between scientists of the GDR and scientists of the Soviet Union and social democratic countries is still insufficiently developed.
A feeling of anxiety for their personal safety is evident among broad circles of the intelligentsia and most of all among the technical intelligentsia. The instances of groundless accusations of sabotage constitute the reason for this sort of mood. The absence of the necessary explanatory work on this issue creates favorable conditions for the activity of enemies and the broad dissemination of all sorts of slanders.

V.

West German and Anglo-American authorities are carrying out economic and political diversions aimed at disrupting the five-year plan and at discrediting the policy of the GDR government before the populace. They have worked out a system of measures to entice engineering-technical, scientific and highly-qualified workers from the enterprises and establishments of the GDR.
In West Berlin, a high exchange rate of the Western mark in relation to the Eastern mark is being artificially maintained, making it profitable for the West Berlin population to buy food in the GDR. On the other hand, the acute shortage of high-quality consumer goods in the GDR and their presence in West Berlin attracts a large mass of the residents of the GDR into the Western sector[s] of Berlin. Providing West Berlin with a high level of supply of every imaginable good and lower prices for goods compared to the rest of West Germany has the aim of creating the impression among the population that a high standard of living in West Germany exists in comparison with the GDR.
One of the methods of enemy activity is to dispatch special recruiters to the GDR who entice qualified workers, engineers and technicians, and teachers of secondary and higher schools, to the West.
The West German authorities, the Americans, English, and French, systematically conduct propaganda on the radio in favor of the GDR population’s departure for the West, send large quantities of provocative letters, and give provocative telephone warnings of allegedly imminent arrests of GDR citizens.

VI.

The church, especially of late, is displaying an active role in enemy propaganda against the GDR. The leaders of the Protestant and Catholic Churches located in West Germany have taken the path of open struggle against the GDR; in sermons and in multiple letters, the clergy calls upon the populace to flee to the West.
The SED CC is committing some mistakes in its relations with the church.
On 27 January 1953, the SED CC made a decision on exposing the anti-democratic activity of the church youth organization “Junge Gemeinde.” It was proposed not to begin to expose the reactionary activity of “Junge Gemeinde” through broad propaganda work among the populace, but through the organization of trials. In connection with this instruction, the organs of the MfS [Stasi] carried out the arrests of some clergymen and members of “Junge Gemeinde” in February and March. Due to the inadequacy and unconvincing character of the material, however, the trials have not yet been held. Then the SED CC gave an order to begin unmasking “Junge Gemeinde” in the youth press. During the implementation of these instructions, the accusation was made across the board that all of the members of “Junge Gemeinde” were members of the terrorist West German youth organization (BDJ). As a result of this the campaign to expose the reactionary activity of “Junge Gemeinde” has currently exacerbated relations between the church and the state.
At one of the meetings with the first secretaries of the SED district committees, W. Ulbricht gave the order that open meetings were to be held in all institutions of higher learning and 12-grade schools of the League of FDJ to expose the “Junge Gemeinde,” in the course of which the expulsion of the leaders and most active members of “Junge Gemeinde” from schools and educational institutions was to be demanded. In certain schools the number of those expelled reaches 20-30 persons, and in each institution of higher education, the number of expelled students ranges from 5 to 20 persons; this in particular, has led to the fact that in March and April of this year alone, 250 people from 39 12-grade schools have fled to the West.

VII.

In the interest of halting the departure of the population to West Germany, it seems expedient to recommend the implementation of the following measures to the leadership of the GDR:

On economic issues:

1. To take measures toward the unconditional fulfillment of the industrial production plan for 1953, which is decisive for the fulfillment of the five-year plan. To liquidate the lag which took place from the beginning of the year and especially to devote attention to assuring the fulfillment of the plan for machine-building [industry], the introduction of electric power, and the development of [the] metallurgy [industry].
2. Over the course of a month, to work out measures to increase the 1953 consumer goods production plan and the development of commodity circulation.
For this purpose, the government of the GDR must take additional measures to import necessary raw materials: cotton–15-20,000 tons, wool–3,000 tons, heavy leather—2,500 tons. To increase imports of food stuffs (fats, fruits, and others) and some high-quality manufactured consumer goods. For this purpose, to assign additional output of high-quality production for export, in particular to capitalist countries, having found the necessary raw materials locally, using the free [industrial] capacities at hand, especially in precision mechanics and optics.
The GDR Ministry of Foreign Trade makes insufficient use of the possibilities of trade with capitalist countries. It is desirable to render necessary aid to the GDR Ministry of Foreign Trade through the trade representatives of the USSR and the people’s democracies in capitalist countries.
3. To oblige local organs of power to improve the leadership of local industry significantly. To oblige the GDR Gosplan [State Planning Commission] to re-examine within a month the 1953 production plans for local industry with a view to expanding them significantly.
4. In noting the underestimation of the role of manufacture in supplying the population with consumer goods, it is necessary to take governmental measures in support of crafts production. It is expedient, in keeping with the realization of artisans’ cooperatives, to organize supplies of raw materials for them on a contractual basis on the condition that they hand over their completed products to the state commercial network; to work out measures to offer artisans tax and credit advantages, and also to equip artisans’ cooperatives and individual enterprises with industrial equipment.
5. Considering that one of the reasons for the departure of peasants from the GDR to West Germany is the high norms for quotas of agricultural deliveries to the state, to reduce by 5-10% the differentiated norms in effect in 1953 for compulsory supplies of grain crops and meat by peasant farms.
6. To cancel ration cards for meat, fats and sugar from the autumn of 1953, thereby completing the elimination of the rationing system in the GDR, keeping in mind that the per-capita consumption norms that have been attained furnish the possibility of a transition to free commerce.
7. To work out a three-year plan on mechanizing agriculture, developing the MTS network, and equipping it with tractors and agricultural machinery in order to have the possibility of fulfilling the needs for mechanized cultivation of the land not only of agricultural cooperatives, but also of individual peasant farms.
8. To halt the practice of using tractors and agricultural machines from private cultivators through the MTS for work on other farms.
9. To work out a three-year plan to develop animal husbandry and to create a fodder base, assuming the need for future improvements in supplies to the populace from their own resources.
10. To work out a production plan for fertilizer in quantities that will meet in full the needs of agriculture, including large private farms.
11. To concentrate the attention of state and party organs on the organizational-economic strengthening of the agricultural production cooperatives which have been created in order to ensure, even this year, a harvest in the cooperatives that is larger than that of the best individual agricultural farms, and an income for cooperative members [that] exceeds the incomes of individual peasant farms.
12. In carrying out measures on limiting private-capitalist elements, to differentiate between attitudes toward large and small retailers and other small entrepreneurs (proprietors of small restaurants, hairdressers, bakers, and so on) with regard to taxes, credits, issuing food ration cards, supplying goods to merchants; and to use private commerce in the capacity of a commodity distribution network to serve the population.
13. Considering the populace’s great demand for construction materials, [as well as] agricultural and gardening equipment, to organize a broad trade in them, both in the city and the countryside, having ensured a portion of additional funds for cement, saw-timber, tiles and machine-manufactured articles; to increase the production of agricultural and gardening equipment.

On administrative issues:

1. In the near future, to carry out a broad amnesty both with regard to persons convicted in the first period for Nazi crimes, and, in particular, persons convicted in the most recent period, with the exception of persons convicted for espionage, terrorist acts, diversions, premeditated murder and for large thefts of the people’s property. 15-17,000 persons could be freed from prisons by the amnesty.
2. To take measures quickly toward the introduction of strict order and the observance of lawfulness in procedures for arresting and detaining citizens.
3. To organize expediently social courts [obshchestvennye sudy] in enterprises, in institutions, and at people’s estates [narodnye imeniia] to examine minor economic and administrative violations.
4. To re-examine the current criminal code to remove those articles of criminal law which permit their application to even the most inconsequential violations.
5. To cancel all criminal-legal orders containing the directives and circulars of separate ministries. Henceforward, to establish a procedure by which criminal-legal sanctions can be stipulated only in laws of the People’s Chamber, and in exceptional cases, in a decree by the government of the GDR.
6. To consider it crucial to carry out a reorganization of the communities [obshchiny] in the direction of enlarging and strengthening local authorities.
7. To carry out, in 1953, an exchange of passports for the entire population of the GDR and, first and foremost, for the population of the democratic sector of Berlin and its surrounding districts.
8. To re-examine the GDR government’s decree of 5 March 1953 on mass criminal indictments for the non-fulfillment of supply quotas [postavki] [to the state] and taxes.
9. In view of the fact that the migration of the population from the GDR to the West is taking place through Berlin, to consider it expedient to require GDR citizens to have passes [spravki] and business travel papers [komandirovochnye udostovereniia] from local institutions or organs of power upon entry into Berlin.

On political questions:

1. To end the political underestimation of the significance of the issue surrounding the departure of GDR citizens to West Germany that currently exists in party and state organs and among party workers. To oblige party organs and primary party organizations to analyze with care and to study all cases of departure and to take effective measures to ascertain the reasons influencing the population’s migration to West Germany.
To view the departure of members of the SED as a betrayal of the party. To investigate according to party procedure each case of departure by members of the SED to the West and to discuss [these cases] at general meetings of the party organizations and regional committees of the SED.
2. To commit the party and the mass democratic organizations of the GDR to conduct systematic explanatory work among the GDR populace against leaving for West Germany, exposing with concrete examples the slanderous fabrications, [and] the essence and methods of the subversive work which is being carried out by West German agents.
3. To take concrete measures to strengthen counter-propaganda, organizing it in such ways that the press and radio of the GDR systematically expose the mendacious Western propaganda on the issue of refugees from the GDR. To set aside the necessary resources for this.
4. In the interests of an effective struggle against the reactionary broadcasts of “RIAS,” to ensure the completion in 1953 of the construction of powerful radio stations in Magdeburg, Schwerin, and Dresden. To build 15 medium-wave low-power radio stations with up to 5 kilowatts of power and 10 short wave stations each with up to 2-3 kilowatts of power. To manufacture and deploy 400-600 “Gebor” radio sets.
5. In the interests of strengthening counter-propaganda, to organize through the KPD the systematic collection of information about the refugees’ difficult conditions and the poor material and legal conditions of different strata of the West German populace.
6. In order to expose the reactionary propaganda of the church, to explain in a detailed and systematic way through the press and in oral propaganda that the government of the GDR unswervingly observes freedom of conscience, of religion, and of religious observance, as provided for in the GDR constitution. To explain that the actions of the authorities are directed only against those church officials and leaders of “Junge Gemeinde” who conduct hostile subversive work against the democratic tradition of the GDR.
7. To take measures to correct the excesses which have been committed with regard to students expelled from school and from institutions of higher learning for belonging to the “Junge Gemeinde.”
8. For the SED CC to examine in particular the issue of improving work among the intelligentsia and to correct the mistakes that have been committed.
9. To take measures to improve scientific and cultural links between scholars in the GDR and in the Soviet Union and the people’s democracies, as well as to supply the GDR intelligentsia with foreign scientific and technical literature.

V. Chuikov
P. Yudin
I. Il’ichev

18 May 1953.

 

Appendix No. 1

INFORMATION
on the social and age composition and party affiliation of those who left the GDR for West Germany

1. By social composition:

Second half of 1952

Four months of 1953

1. Workers

17,279

17,784

2. White-collar workers

14,178

13,156

3. Kulaks

1,124

4,085

4. Medium peasants

546

1,364

5. Small peasants

1,077

1,140

6. Scientific workers

20

58

7. Workers in the arts

216

8. Engineering-technical workers

344

870

9. Doctors

167

334

10. Lawyers

no data

120

11. Teachers and instructors in secondary and higher institutions of learning

588

900

12. Students

659

814

13. Church Employees

71

69

14. Artisans

no data

1,897

15. Owners of a commercial enterprise

no data

2,937

16. Owners of a private enterprise

no data

1,730

17. Pensioners

no data

4,286

18. Persons without definite occupation

no data

13,115

19. Housewives

no data

24,350

2. By age

Second half-year of 1952

Four months of 1953

Children up to 15

17606

29814

[Persons] from 15 to 18

5486

7234

from 18 to 25

13153

14871

from 25 to 40

18110

26725

from 40 to 50

11748

18788

from 50 to 60

7866

15045

over 60

3736

7632

3. By party affiliation: (only over 4 months of 1953)

Members and candidates of the SED

2,713

of them, functionaries

175

Members of the LDP

865

of them, functionaries

5

Members of the CDU

935

of them, functionaries

69

Members of the NDP

375

of them, functionaries

30

Members of the DKP

521

of them, functionaries

30

Members of the SSNM

2,610

of them, functionaries

30

4. By place of work (only over 4 months of 1953).

1. From state institutions and communal enterprises

5608

2. From people’s enterprises

7847

3. From enterprises under wardship

586

4. From large private enterprises

3027

5. From small private enterprises

9757

6. From “SAO” enterprises

882

7. From MTS [machine-tractor stations]

212

8. From agricultural food cooperatives

191

9. Individual peasants

3855

10. From peasant mutual-aid enterprises, commercial organizations and konzumy

2414

11. From party, union and mass organizations

266

Of the refugees:

1. Leaders of enterprises

375

2. Division heads

219

 

[Appendix No. II not included in original]

 

Appendix No. 3

INFORMATION
on persons convicted for 1951-1953
by punishment

Punishment

1951 1st half

2nd half

1952 1st half

2nd half

1953 1st quarter

Death penalty

10

7

6

8

3

Life imprisonment

13

12

22

32

16

Convict prison [katorzhnaia tur ‘ma] for over 10 years

74

88

64

159

115

from 5 to 10 years

472

781

1054

1136

912

up to 5 years

2543

3362

3578

4597

5150

Imprisonment for 3 to 5 years

250

287

383

329

183

Imprisonment for 1 to 3 years

3785

4448

5026

4561

2170

Imprisonment for up to 1 year

16216

13926

13778

17345

7031

Short-term arrest

392

408

559

403

201

Monetary fine

17812

14786

11101

13819

6245

Educational measures for adolescents

2179

2152

2577

2665

1281

Other sanctions

55

49

12

21

2

Total convicted

43801

40306

38160

45075

23309

 

Appendix No. 4

INFORMATION
on arrested persons under investigation
from 1952-1953 by types of crime

Types of crimes

First half of 1952

Second half of 1952

First quarter of 1953

Proceedings instituted

Persons arrested

Proceedings instituted

Persons arrested

Proceedings instituted

Persons arrested

1. Anti-democratic crimes

1197

1428

2624

3295

1752

2219

2. Espionage (Included in 1. above)

180

339

510

989

226

385

3. Possession of weapons

393

247

233

195

205

199

4. Opposition to authorities

496

273

679

339

300

188

5. SVAG Decree No. 160 (sabotage and diversions)

155

105

209

213

170

293

6. Law on preserving internal-German trade

1818

1757

1433

1084

804

703

7. Unlawful import and export of goods, as defined by 1948 decree of the NEK

1004

130

370

64

56

17

8. Non-fulfillment of state deliveries

238

38

584

130

750

336

9. Crimes against the people’s property

4053

688

2554

953

5344

3988

10. Murder and maiming

2074

333

2957

353

1915

256

11. Crimes against morality

2440

936

2594

1105

795

520

12. Theft of private property

35765

2404

28402

1899

4804

844

13. Violation of borders

5688

2842

2150

1275

13. Others

21852

3007

26328

4999

10838

3510

Total:

71485

11346

74655

17471

29883

14348

 

Appendix No. 5

INFORMATION
on arrested persons by their most recent
arrest from 1949-1953

Arrests over the second half of 1949

11,425 persons

Arrests over the first half of 1950

12,911 persons

Arrests over the second half of 1950

13,860 persons

Arrests over the first half of 1951

13,587 persons

Arrests over the second half of 1951

14,689 persons

Arrests over the first half of 1952

11,346 persons

Arrests over the second half of 1952

17,471 persons

Arrests over the first quarter of 1953

14,348 persons

DOCUMENT SUMMARY
The Soviet Control Commission in Germany reports statistics and a detailed assessment to Malenkov, analyzing the migration of the East German population to West Germany. It also includes proposals for implementing measures to prevent further departure from the GDR.

CREATORS
YUDIN, PAVEL F.

CHUIKOV, V. I. (VASILII IVANOVICH), 1900-1982

ILICHEV, IVAN

SUBJECTS DISCUSSED
Germany (East)–Foreign relations–Soviet Union
Germany (East)–Foreign relations–Germany (West)
Germany (East)–History–Uprising, 1953
LOCATIONS DISCUSSED
East Germany
West Germany

WORKING NOTES FROM THE SESSION OF THE CPSU CC PRESIDIUM ON 4 NOVEMBER 1956 – HUNGARIAN REVOLUTION

Nikita Khrushchev at the 20th Congress of the CPSU (1956) - CVCE Website

Working Notes from the Session of the CPSU CC Presidium on 4 November 1956
(Re: Protocol No. 51)

Those Taking Part: Bulganin, Voroshilov,Kaganovich, Malenkov, Molotov, Pervukhin, Saburov, Suslov, Khrushchev, Zhukov, Shepilov, Furtseva, Pospelov.

On the Operations and Situation in Hungary(1)
Cde. Kaganovich’s ciphered cable from
Cde. Malinin at Cde. Khrushchev (4 XI).(2)

1) Bring back Cdes. Mikoyan and Brezhnev.
2) Provide assistance to Hungary.(3)
3) More actively take part in the assistance to Egypt.(4)

Think through a number of measures (perhaps a demonstration at the English embassy). More widely in the newspapers.

Cde. Molotov—think about Hungary. Exert influence on Kadar so that Hungary does not go the route of Yugoslavia. They made changes in the Declaration—they now condemn the Rakosi-Gero clique—and this might be dangerous.(5) We must convince them that they should refrain from this reference to the Rakosi-Gero clique. Kadar is calling (1 XI) for a condemnation of Stalinism.(6) The title of Hungarian Workers’ Party should be retained. We should come to agreement with them and prevent them from shifting to Yugoslav positions.

Cde. Molotov—reinforce the military victory through political means.

Cde. Khrushchev—I don’t understand Cde. Molotov. He comes up with the most pernicious ideas.

Cde. Molotov—you should keep quiet and stop being so overbearing.

Cde. Bulganin—we should condemn the incorrect line of Rakosi-Gero.

Cde. Khrushchev:The declaration is good —we must act honorably.

Cde. Shepilov—during the editing they added the phrase “the clique of Rakosi and Gero.” We are giving them legal opportunities to denigrate the entire 12-year period of the HWP’s work.

Cde. Shepilov—is it really necessary to disparage cadres? Tomorrow it will be the “clique of Ulbricht.”(7)

Cde. Saburov—if they themselves don’t comprehend their mistakes, we will deal at length with the matter. Reward the military personnel. Take care of the families of those who perished. (8)

V. On Purging the Higher Educational Institutions of Unsavory Elements

(Cdes. Zhukov, Khrushchev, Furtseva, Pervukhin, Voroshilov) Furtseva, Pospelov, Shepilov, and Elyutin are to come up with recommendations for purging the higher educational institutions of unsavory elements.(9)

IV. On the Response to Cde. Kardelj and the Telegram About Imre Nagy

Affirm the text of the response.(10)

On Instructions to the Soviet Ambassador in Hungary On the Raising of the Question at the Gen. Assembly’s Session on Hungary

Cde. Kadar is to say that he will withdraw the question from the UN.(11)

Translator’s Notes

1 This topic was not included in the formal protocol for the session (“Protokol No. 51 zasedaniya Prezidiuma TsK KPSS,” in APRF, F. 3, Op. 64, D. 484, Ll. 60-61).

2 Most likely, there is a mistake or omission in Malin’s text. These phrases, as given in the original, do not make sense.

3 The reference here is to financial, not military, assistance. A Soviet economic aid package for Hungary was approved on 5 November and announced the following day.

4 These points about the Suez Crisis are intriguing in light of what happened the following day (5 November). During the first several days of the Suez Crisis, Moscow’s response was limited to verbal protestations through the media and at the UN. On 5 November, the day before a ceasefire was arranged, Soviet prime minister Nikolai Bulganin sent letters to the U.S., French, British, and Israeli governments. His letter to President Eisenhower warned that “if this war is not halted, it will be fraught with danger and might escalate into a third world war.” Bulganin proposed that the United States and Soviet Union move jointly to “crush the aggressors,” an action he justified on the grounds that the two superpowers had “all modern types of arms, including nuclear and thermonuclear weapons, and bear particular responsibility for stopping the war.” Not surprisingly, Eisenhower immediately rejected Bulganin’s proposal. Bulganin’s letters to France, Great Britain, and Israel were far more minatory, including thinly-veiled threats to use missiles if necessary to prevent Egypt’s destruction. The letters to France and Britain contained identical passages: “In what position would [Britain and France] have found themselves if they had been attacked by more powerful states possessing all types of modern weapons of destruction? These more powerful states, instead of sending naval or air forces to the shores of [Britain or France], could use other means, such as missile technology.” Bulganin’s letter to Israel declared that “Israel is playing with the fate of peace and the fate of its own people in a criminal and irresponsible manner.” This policy, Bulganin warned, “is raising doubts about the very existence of Israel as a state. We expect that the Government of Israel will come to its senses before it is too late and will halt its military operations against Egypt.” For the texts of the letters and other Soviet statements during the crisis, see D. T. Shepilov, ed., Suetskii krizis (Moscow: Politizdat, 1956). Although the letters represented a much more forceful and conspicuous Soviet stance against the allied incursions, they came so belatedly that they had only a minor impact at best on efforts to achieve a ceasefire.

5 This passage refers to the appeal to the nation that Kadar’s government issued when it was installed in power on 4 November.

6 Molotov is referring to Kadar’s radio address on 1 November, which was published in Nepszabad the following day.

7 This in fact is precisely what Ulbricht himself feared; see the detailed account by the chief of the East German State Security forces in 1956, Ernst Wollweber, in Wilfriede Otto, ed., “Ernst Wollweber: Aus Erinnerungen — Ein Portrait Walter Ulbrichts,” Beitrage zur Geschichte der Arbeiterbewegung, No. 3 (1990), esp. pp. 361- 378. For more on the impact of the 1956 crises on the East German communist leadership, see the papers presented by Hope M. Harrison and Christian F. Ostermann at the “Conference on Hungary and the World, 1956: The New Archival Evidence,” which took place in Budapest on 25-29 September 1996 and was organized by the Institute for the History of the 1956 Hungarian Revolution, the National Security Archive, and the Cold War International History Project. Copies of the papers, both of which draw extensively on the archives of the former Socialist Unity Party of Germany (SED), are available from the conference organizers.

8 Saburov is referring to the families of Soviet troops who were killed, not to the much larger number of Hungarians who died in the fighting.

9 This illustrates how concerned CPSU leaders were that the crisis was spilling over into the Soviet Union. Both before and after 4 November, unrest and protests occurred at a number of higher educational institutions in the USSR, including Moscow State University (MGU). At MGU, “protests against Soviet military intervention” were accompanied by “anti-Soviet slogans and posters.” Both students and faculty took part in the actions. The KGB quickly moved in and restored order, but the crackdown was not as vigorous and sweeping as some CPSU officials wanted. See the first-hand account by the longtime deputy director of the KGB, Filipp Bobkov, KGB i vlast’ (Moscow: Veteran MP, 1995), pp. 144-145. Bobkov claims that Pyotr Pospelov and some other senior party officials, as well as a number of high-ranking personnel in the KGB, wanted to launch “mass repressions” to deter any further unrest, but their proposals were never formally adopted. Subsequently, a commission headed by Brezhnev issued secret orders and guidelines to all party organizations to tighten political controls.

10 On 4 November, the Soviet ambassador in Yugoslavia, Nikolai Firyubin, sent a telegram to Moscow with information provided by Kardelj (at Tito’s behest) about the refuge granted to Imre Nagy and his aides in the Yugoslav embassy. The response, as approved by the CPSU Presidium, called on the Yugoslav authorities to turn over the Hungarian officials to Soviet troops. See “Vypiska iz protokola No. P51/IV zasedaniya Prezidiuma TsK KPSS ot 4 noyabrya 1956 g.,” 4 November 1956 (Strictly Secret), in APRF, F. 3, Op. 64, D. 485, Ll. 103-104.

11 Nagy had appealed to UN Secretary-General Dag Hammerskjold on 1 November asking for support of Hungary’s sovereignty and independence. The UN Security Council began considering the matter on 3 November. On 4 November, the UN Security Council took up the question of Soviet military intervention in Hungary, and the UN General Assembly voted to condemn the Soviet invasion. On 5 November, the CPSU newspaper Pravda featured a letter purportedly sent by Kadar and Imre Horvath to Dag Hammarskjold. The letter claimed that Nagy’s submission of the Hungarian question to the UN had been illegal, and requested that all consideration of the issue cease.

DOCUMENT SUMMARY
At this session of the CPSU CC, Molotov raises concerns over the new Hungarian government’s decision to condemn the “Rakosi-Gero clique” and call for the condemnation of Stalinism. Molotov argues that the CC must exert influence on Kadar to prevent Hungary from going the way of Yugoslavia. The session also discusses recommendations for purging higher educational institutions and Kadar’s withdrawal of appeals to the UN for assistance.

CREATORS
MALIN, V. N.

MOLOTOV, VYACHESLAV MIKHAYLOVICH, 1890-1986

SUBJECTS DISCUSSED
Hungary–History–Revolution, 1956
LOCATIONS DISCUSSED
Hungary
Soviet Union

WORKING NOTES FROM THE SESSION OF THE CPSU CC PRESIDIUM ON 30 OCTOBER 1956 – CHINESE COMRADES

 

 

 

Culture | Stalin, Molotov, Voroshilov, L.M. Kaganovich, Mikoyan, Zhdanov,  Beria, Shvernik, Malenkov, Bulgarin,Shcherbakov Shkiryatov,Budyonny,  Loktinov and Mikhailov at the air show in Tushino (August 18, 1939)

Working Notes from the Session of the CPSU CC Presidium on 30 October 1956(1)

(Re: Point 1 of Protocol No. 49)(2)
Those Taking Part: Bulganin, Voroshilov, Molotov, Kaganovich, Saburov, Brezhnev, Zhukov, Shepilov, Shvernik, Furtseva, Pospelov

On the Situation in Hungary
Information from Cdes. Mikoyan and Serov is read aloud.(3)

Cde. Zhukov provides information about the concentration of mil.-transport aircraft in the Vienna region.(4) Nagy is playing a double game (in Malinin’s opinion). Cde. Konev is to be sent to Budapest.(5)

On Discussions with the Chinese comrades. (6)
(Khrushchev)

We should adopt a declaration today on the withdrawal of troops from the countries of people’s democracy (and consider these matters at a session of the Warsaw Pact), taking account of the views of the countries in which our troops are based. The entire CPC CC Politburo supports this position. One document for the Hungarians, and another for the participants of the Warsaw Pact. On Rokossowski—I said to Gomulka that this matter is for you (the Poles) to decide.(7)

Cde. Bulganin—The Chinese cdes. have an incorrect impression of our relations with the countries of people’s democracy. On our appeal to the Hungarians—we should prepare it. A declaration should be prepared.

Cde. Molotov—Today an appeal must be written to the Hungarian people so that they promptly enter into negotiations about the withdrawal of troops. There is the Warsaw Pact. This must be considered with other countries. On the view of the Chinese comrades—they suggest that relations with the countries of the socialist camp be built on the principles of Pancha Shila.(8) Relations along interstate lines are on one basis and interparty relations on another.

Cde. Voroshilov: We must look ahead. Declarations must be composed so that we aren’t placed into an onerous position. We must criticize ourselves—but justly.

Cde. Kaganovich—Pancha Shila, but I don’t think they should propose that we build our relations on the principles of Pancha Shila. Two documents—an appeal to the Hungarians and a Declaration. In this document we don’t need to provide self-criticism. There’s a difference between party and state relations.

Cde. Shepilov—The course of events reveals the crisis in our relations with the countries of people’s democracy. Anti-Soviet sentiments are widespread. The underlying reasons must be revealed. The foundations remain unshakable. Eliminate the elements of diktat, not giving play in this situation to a number of measures to be considered in our relations. The declaration is the first step. There is no need for an appeal to the Hungarians. On the armed forces: We support the principles of non-interference. With the agreement of the government of Hungary, we are ready to withdraw troops. We’ll have to keep up a struggle with national- Communism for a long time.

Cde. Zhukov—Agrees with what Cde. Shepilov has said. The main thing is to decide in Hungary. Anti-Soviet sentiments are widespread. We should withdraw troops from Budapest, and if necessary withdraw from Hungary as a whole. This is a lesson for us in the military-political sphere.

Cde. Zhukov—With regard to troops in the GDR and in Poland, the question is more serious. It must be considered at the Consultative Council.(9) The Consultative Council is to be convened. To persist further—it is unclear what will come of this. A quick decision, the main thing is to declare it today.

Cde. Furtseva—We should adopt a general declaration, not an appeal to the Hungarians. Not a cumbersome declaration. The second thing is important for the internal situation. We must search for other modes of relations with the countries of people’s democracy.
About meetings with leaders of the people’s democracies (concerning relations). We should convene a CC plenum (for informational purposes).(10)

Cde. Saburov: Agrees about the need for a Declaration and withdrawal of troops. At the XX Congress we did the correct thing, but then did not keep control of the unleashed initiative of the masses. It’s impossible to lead against the will of the people. We failed to stand for genuine Leninist principles of leadership. We might end up lagging behind events. Agrees with Cde. Furtseva. The ministers are asking; so are members of the CC.(11) With regard to Romania—they owe us 5 billion rubles for property created by the people.(12) We must reexamine our relations. Relations must be built on an equal basis.

Cde. Khrushchev: We are unanimous. As a first step we will issue a Declaration.

Cde. Khrushchev—informs the others about his conversation with Cde. Mikoyan. Kadar is behaving well. 5 of the 6 are firmly hanging in there.(13) A struggle is going on inside the [HWP— trans.] Presidium about the withdrawal of troops. The minister of defense will issue a directive about the suppression of insurgents in the cinema, using the armed forces. (Malinin, apparently, became nervous and left the session.) Officers from the state security (Hungarian) are with our troops.(14)

Consideration of the Draft Declaration
(Shepilov, Molotov, Bulganin)

Cde. Bulganin—we should say in what connection the question of a Declaration arose. Page 2, Par. 2, don’t soften the self-criticism. Mistakes were committed. Much use should be made of “Leninist principles.”

Cde. Khrushchev—expresses agreement. We should say we are guided by Leninist principles. Page 2, Par. 5—we should say we are making a statement, not an explanation.
Page 3—we should speak about economic equity, make it the main thing. We should say that no troops are stationed in the majority of countries. We should say that on the territory of the Polish, Hungarian, and Romanian states the stationing of troops is done with the consent of their governments and in the interests of these gov’ts and peoples.(15) We should express our view of the government of Hungary. Measures to support them. About support for the party and HWP CC and for the gov’t. We should refer specifically to Nagy and Kadar.

Cde. Kaganovich, Cde. Molotov, Cde.

Zhukov: We should mention the Potsdam agreement and the treaties with every country. (16)

Cde. Zhukov—We should express sympathy with the people. We should call for an end to the bloodshed. Page 2, Par. 2: We should say the XX Congress condemned the disregard for principles of equality.

Cde. Zhukov—we should speak about economics. Restructuring was thwarted after the XX Congress.

(Cde. Khrushchev)
We are turning to the member-states of the Warsaw Pact to consider the question of our advisers.(17) We are ready to withdraw them. Further editing.(18) Transmitted via high frequency to Cdes. Mikoyan and Suslov.

Information from Cde. Yudin on Negotiations with the Chinese Comrades.
What’s the situation: Will Hungary leave our camp? Who is Nagy? Can he be trusted? About the advisers.Those taking part: Bulganin, Voroshilov, Kaganovich, Molotov, Saburov, Khrushchev, Zhukov, Brezhnev, Shepilov, Shvernik, Furtseva, Pospelov, Yudin. Chinese comrades.

On the Situation in Hungary
(Cde. Khrushchev, Cde. Liu Shaoqi)

Cde. Liu Shaoqi indicates on behalf of the CPC CC that troops must remain in Hungary and in Budapest.(19)

Cde. Khrushchev—there are two paths. A military path—one of occupation. A peaceful path—the withdrawal of troops, negotiations.

Cde. Molotov—the political situation has taken clearer shape. An anti-revol. gov’t has been formed, a transitional gov’t.(20) We should issue the Declaration and explain our position. We should clarify our relationship with the new gov’t. We are entering into negotiations about the withdrawal of troops.

Nagy—the prime minister.
Kadar—a state minister.
Tildy Zoltan— “
Kovacs Bela—
Losonczy—a Communist and a supporter of Nagy(21)

Translator’s Notes

1 As with the previous session, the pages in the original file were slightly out of sequence. The order has been corrected in the translation.

2 Protocol No. 49 encompasses both this session and the session on the following day (see Document No. 8) under the rubric “On the Situation in Hungary” (O polozhenii v Vengrii). Point 1 (from 30 October) covers the Soviet declaration on ties with socialist countries, whereas Point 6 (from 31 October) covers the decision to invade. The relevant extracts from Protocol No. 49 are now stored in APRF, F. 3, Op. 64, D. 484, Ll. 25-30 and APRF, F. 3, Op. 64, D. 484, L. 41, respectively.

3 Presumably, the reference here is to three documents: one that arrived on the morning of 30 October, and two that arrived late at night on 29 October. The item that arrived on the morning of 30 October was a secure, high-frequency telephone message from Mikoyan and Suslov, which gave a bleak portrayal of the latest events. See “TsK KPSS,” 30 October 1956 (Strictly Secret), in TsKhSD, F.89, Op.45, D.12, Ll.1-3. Of the two documents that arrived late at night on the 29th, one was a ciphered telegram from Mikoyan and Suslov reporting that they had attended a session of the HWP Presidium earlier that evening. They also commented on the takeover of the Szabad Nep building by a group of unarmed students and writers. Mikoyan and Suslov asserted that the Hungarian “comrades have failed to win over the masses,” and that “the anti-Communist elements are behaving impudently.” In addition, they expressed concern about what would happen to former agents of the Hungarian State Security (AVH) forces in the wake of Nagy’s decision to disband the AVH. See “Shifrtelegramma: TsK KPSS,” 29 October 1956 (Strictly Secret- Urgent), from A. Mikoyan and M. Suslov, in AVPRF, F.059a, Op.4, P.6, D.5, Ll.13-14. The other document that arrived late on the 29th was a situation report from Ivan Serov, dated 29 October, which Mikoyan and Suslov ordered to be transmitted to Moscow via secure telephone. Serov’s report gave an updated overview of the insurgency and expressed deep concern about the likely repercussions from the dissolution of the AVH. See “Telefonogramma,” 29 October 1956, from A. Mikoyan and M. Suslov, relaying I. Serov’s memorandum, in APRF, F.3, Op.64, D.484, Ll.158-161.

4 British military transport aircraft were flying into the Vienna airport with supplies of humanitarian aid, which were then being conveyed to Budapest. It is unclear whether Zhukov knew why these planes were concentrated there. It is possible that he believed the aircraft were ferrying in military supplies or were preparing for a military operation.

5 As commander-in-chief of the Warsaw Pact, Marshal Ivan Konev assumed direct command of Soviet military operations in Hungary in November 1956. In a telephone message on the morning of 30 October (see Note 78 supra), Mikoyan and Suslov had urged that Konev be dispatched to Hungary “immediately” as a precautionary step. One of Konev’s top aides during the invasion was General Mikhail Malinin, a first deputy chief of the Soviet General Staff, who commanded Soviet troops during the initial intervention on 23 October. As indicated in the previous line, Soviet leaders frequently consulted Malinin in the leadup to the invasion.

6 The “Chinese comrades” with whom Khrushchev had discussions were the members of the delegation headed by Liu Shaoqi (see Note 25 supra). Liu Shaoqi was in direct touch with Mao Zedong several times during the delegation’s stay in Moscow, and thus he was able to keep Khrushchev apprised of the Chinese leader’s views of the situation in Poland and Hungary.

7 Rokossowski had been removed from the Polish Politburo on 19 October. On 13 November he was replaced as Polish national defense minister by a Polish officer, Marshal Marian Spychalski. Rokossowski was then recalled to the Soviet Union, where he was appointed a deputy defense minister. Evidently, Khrushchev had spoken with Gomulka by phone that morning.

8 The five principles of Pancha Shila—(1) mutual respect for sovereignty and territorial integrity, (2) non-aggression, (3) non-interference in internal affairs, (4) equality and mutual benefit, and (5) peaceful coexistence—were endorsed in a joint statement by Chinese prime minister Zhou Enlai and Indian prime minister Jawaharlal Nehru in New Delhi on 28 June 1954. The principles were intended to “guide relations between the two countries” as well as “relations with other countries in Asia and in other parts of the world.” For the full text of the statement, see G. V. Ambekar and V. D. Divekar, eds., Documents on China’s Relations with South and South-East Asia (1949- 1962) (New York: Allied Publishers, 1964), pp. 7-8.

9 Zhukov is referring here to the Political Consultative Committee (PKK) of the recently-created Warsaw Treaty Organization. The PKK convened only seven times between 1955 and 1966, despite its statutory requirement to meet at least twice a year.

10 During major international crises in the post- Stalin period, the Soviet Presidium/Politburo occasionally would convene a Central Committee plenum to give the CC members a sense of involvement in decision-making and to ensure that the leadership’s policies would be firmly obeyed at lower levels.

11 Saburov is referring here to Furtseva’s suggestion that a CPSU CC plenum be convened for informational purposes.

12 This presumably refers to Soviet property transferred to Romania during World War II, rather than to Romania’s war reparations, which by 1956 were no longer of great magnitude.

13 Khrushchev is referring here to the six-member HWP Presidium. The only holdout was Nagy.

14 The State Security Department (Allam-Vedelmi Osztaly, or AVO), which was reorganized in 1949 and renamed the State Security Authority (Allam- Vedelmi Hatosag, or AVH), was reincorporated into the Hungarian Internal Affairs Ministry in the autumn of 1953. Formally, the agency was given back its old name of AVO, but it was still almost always known as the AVH. One of the earliest and most vigorous demands of the protesters in October 1956 was for the dissolution of the AVH. On 28 October, Nagy promised to fulfill this demand, and the Hungarian government approved the dissolution of the state security organs the following day. Because the AVH had been instrumental in carrying out repression and terror in the late 1940s and 1950s, some state security agents became the targets of lynchings and other violent reprisals during the 1956 uprising. Hungarian state security officers would have joined up with Soviet troops mainly to seek protection, not to assist in counterinsurgency operations. On this matter, see the documents transmitted by Suslov and Mikoyan on 29 October, cited in Note 78 supra.

15 It is interesting that, when referring to Soviet troops deployed in Eastern Europe, Khrushchev does not mention the Soviet troops in East Germany, implying that they were not necessarily there “with the consent of the [East German] government and in the interests of the [East German] government and people.”

16 The final Declaration noted that “Soviet units are in the Hungarian and Romanian republics in accordance with the Warsaw Treaty and governmental agreements. Soviet military units are in the Polish republic on the basis of the Potsdam four-power agreement and the Warsaw Treaty.” The Declaration then claimed that “Soviet military units are not in the other people’s democracies,” omitting any mention of the hundreds of thousands of Soviet troops in East Germany.

17 Khrushchev presumably is referring here to both the military advisers and the state security (KGB) advisers.

18 When this editing was completed, the Presidium formally adopted Resolution No. P49/1 (“Vypiska iz protokola No. 49 zasedaniya Prezidiuma TsK ot 30 oktyabrya 1956 g.: O polozhenii v Vengrii,” 30 October 1956, in APRF, F.3, Op. 64, D.484, Ll. 25-30) stating that it would “approve the text, with changes made at the CPSU CC Presidium session, of a Declaration by the Government of the USSR on the foundations of development and the further strengthening of friendship and cooperation between the Soviet Union and the other socialist countries.” The resolution ordered that the “text of the Declaration be broadcast on radio on 30 October and published in the press on 31 October 1956.” For the published text, see “Deklaratsiya o printsipakh razvitiya I dal’neishem ukreplenii druzhby I sotrudnichestva mezhdu SSSR i drugimi sotsialisticheskimi stranami,” Pravda (Moscow), 31 October 1956, p. 1.

19 It is unclear precisely when the Chinese changed their position from non-interventionist to pro-intervention. The statement recorded here, if correctly transcribed, would suggest that the change occurred before the final Soviet decision on 31 October, but almost all other evidence (including subsequent Presidium meetings recorded by Malin) suggests that it came after, not before, the Soviet decision. In any case, if the change did occur before, it did not have any discernible effect on the Soviet decision at this meeting to eschew intervention.

20 Molotov is referring here to major developments in Hungary. On 30 October, at 2:30 p.m. Budapest time, Nagy announced the formal restoration of a multi-party state and the establishment of an “inner cabinet” of the national government. The new cabinet consisted of Nagy, Zoltan Tildy, Bela Kovacs, Ferenc Erdei, Janos Kadar, Geza Losonczy, and Anna Kethly (from the Social Democratic Party). That same day, a “revolutionary national defense council” of the Hungarian armed forces was set up, which supported the demands of “the revolutionary councils of the working youth and intellectuals,” and called for the “immediate withdrawal of Soviet troops from Budapest and their withdrawal from the entire territory of Hungary within the shortest possible time.” The new Council also promised to disarm all agents from Hungary’s disbanded state security forces (AVH), who had been notorious agents of repression during the Stalin era. A Revolutionary Armed Forces Committee also was formed on 31 October, and it was empowered by the government to create a new army.

21 These are five of the seven members of Nagy’s new “inner cabinet.” Anna Kethly’s name is not listed here because she had not yet been appointed. (Nagy mentioned in his speech on 30 October that “a person to be nominated by the Social Democratic Party” would be in the inner cabinet, and Kethly later turned out to be that person.) It is unclear why Malin did not list Ferenc Erdei’s name here.

DOCUMENT SUMMARY
The Presidium decides to promulgate a declaration on Hungary in which Soviet withdrawal and relations with the new government will be addressed. Members discuss the language of the new declaration and the advice of the CPC CC regarding the status of Soviet troops. The declaration is also intended to address the broader crisis in Soviet relations with people’s democracies.

CREATOR
MALIN, V. N.

SUBJECTS DISCUSSED
Communist countries–Internal relations
Communist countries
Soviet Union. Army
Warsaw Treaty Organization
Hungary–History–Revolution, 1956
Soviet Union–Foreign policy
More …
LOCATIONS DISCUSSED
China
East Germany
Eastern Europe
Hungary
Soviet Union