Cryptome – Can drone flight paths be private?

Will Drones Assassinate When Pigs Fly?

Date: Sun, 21 Apr 2013 22:49:37 -0500
From: Gregory Foster
To: drone-list[at]
Subject: [drone-list] Can drone flight paths be private?

WSJ (Apr 18) – “Why Jet Owners Don’t Want to be Tracked”:

Earlier this week, while some drone pundits were seizing the moment to advocate for law enforcement access to drone technology, this article was also being passed around. Although the article is full of examples of corporations that allege security threats to their employees, the most often re-cited concern was an assassination plot, “a retaliatory act meant to dissuade Lockheed Martin from producing drone weaponry.”

The article is sourced from a 2011 FOIA request to the FAA, so the timing of the article’s release and promotion struck me as trying to generate sympathy for the woes endured by drone manufacturers.

The intent of Rupert Murdoch’s WSJ aside, the other examples of corporate insecurity in this article warrant reading. From big pharma, to the fossil-fuel energy giants, to Disney – they’re all concerned (I’m sure quite reasonably) that there are people out there who are quite angry with them.

I also highlight this article because of discussions that circulated on this list a few months ago concerning just how the FAA intends to track tens of thousands of private and public drones in American skies – and just how much transparency the public can expect to receive into that flight path information. This article confirms that the FAA does maintain exceptions to disclosure of flight path information for privately owned jets, and all the owner has to do is fill out what sounds like a very simple form. The FAA does not question the legitimacy of any request, just makes sure the form is filled out. I don’t see why we should expect that policy to change for privately owned drones.

Here’s the question I have: can the FAA regulate my ability to see, with my own eyes (or a camera, or a radio receiver), what is in the sky? I don’t think so.

And my follow up question: can the FAA regulate my ability to tell someone else, with my own voice (or an email, or a database), what I saw in the sky?

If not, I think we should crowdsource observed and correlated flight paths.

After all, communities are being asked to assume the costs of operating 149 air-traffic control towers by June 15, or they will be shut down.

Those costs run to the tune of $30-40M and the jobs of 1,000 air-traffic controllers.

Seems like a good opportunity to do things differently.


Gregory Foster || gfoster[at]

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From: “Al Mac Wow”
To: “‘drone-list'”
Date: Mon, 22 Apr 2013 02:41:19 -0500
Cc: ‘Bob Speth’
Subject: Re: [drone-list] Can drone flight paths be private?

> When is it reasonable for a drone flight path to be kept confidential?

The only time drones should be carrying passengers is when they are used as air ambulances to transport victims to hospital, more rapidly than ground transportation is capable of.

Such vehicles should be marked on the bottom with a red cross, and/or medical caduceus, so it is crystal clear to everyone what their function is.

Outside the USA, drones are already being used to transport medical supplies to hard to reach places, in support of disaster recovery.

> Can the FAA regulate my ability to see, with my own eyes (or a camera, or a radio receiver), what is in the sky? I don’t think so.

The military has stealth drones. This means they are microscopic on radar. Some of them look like the same color as clouds, and blue sky. I know that technology exists to have something change color, as the background changes, adaptive camouflage. I do not know if that has been incorporated into drones, how expensively prohibitive it might be.

I do not know if it is legal for big corporations to have private stealth jets. If there is no regulation against it, I guess it is.

With stealth there is a risk of collision between such aircraft controlled by different interests, and there have already been several near misses.

> Can the FAA regulate my ability to tell someone else, with my own voice (or an email, or a database, or blog), what I saw in the sky?

Currently in some US states, if we are driving and we see a police radar trap for motorists traveling at speeds in excess of posted limits, and we communicate this info to motorists who have not yet driven into the trap, this action is in violation of the law.

Making something illegal does not put a stop to the activity.

Al Mac (


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Unveiled – UNODC Afghanistan Opium Risk Assessment 2013


In 2013, the Opium Risk Assessment was carried out in two phases similar to the year before. The first phase was implemented between December 2012 and January 2013 and covered the Central, Eastern, Southern and Western region, where opium was sown in fall 2012.

The second phase took place in February-March 2013 and covered the Northern and North-eastern regions, where opium poppy is mainly cultivated in spring. This report presents the findings of both phases. According to the 2013 Opium Risk Assessment increases in poppy cultivation are expected in most regions and in the main poppy-growing provinces.

In the Southern region, the Risk Assessment indicated that the largest opium cultivating provinces, Hilmand and Kandahar, are likely to see an increase in opium cultivation due to the current high price of opium and to compensate the low opium yield in 2012 which was caused by a combination of a disease of the opium poppy and unfavourable weather conditions. An increase in opium poppy cultivation is also expected in Uruzgan and Zabul province. No major changes are expected in Daykundi province. In the western provinces, namely in Farah and Ghor, opium cultivation is also expected to increase. A decrease in opium poppy cultivation is however expected in Hirat province. Increasing trends were reported from Nangarhar and Kapisa provinces in the Eastern region. No major changes in opium cultivation are expected in Nimroz, Badghis, Kabul, Kunar and Laghman provinces.

Balkh and Faryab in northern region are likely to see an increase in opium cultivation in 2013. These two provinces may lose their poppy-free status if timely effective eradication is not implemented. No major changes are expected in Baghlan province. The largest cultivating province in the north-east, Badakhshan is likely to see an increase in opium cultivation in 2013. The increase in opium cultivation is also expected in Takhar province. Takhar may lose its poppy-free status unless effective eradication is implemented in time. The remaining provinces in the northern and north-eastern regions are expected to remain poppy-free in 2013.

The Risk Assessment 2013 indicated that a strong association between insecurity, lack of agricultural assistance and opium cultivation continues to exist. Villages with a low level of security and those which had not received agricultural assistance in the previous year were significantly more likely to grow poppy in 2013 than villages with good security and those, which had received assistance. Similarly, villages which had been reached by anti-poppy awareness campaigns were significantly less likely to grow poppy in 2013.

Fear of eradication was the most frequent reason reported for not cultivating poppy in 2013 in Southern, Western, Eastern and Central region, unlike in previous years, when eradication was rarely mentioned by respondents. The large increase in eradication in 2012 compared to previous years and the fact that it happened in major poppy cultivating areas are likely reasons for this result. However, in the Northern and North-eastern region the most frequent reason for not cultivating opium was “ not enough yield in the previous year” followed by the government’s opium ban.

The findings of the 2013 Opium Risk Assessment in the Southern, Eastern, Western and Central regions points to a worrying situation. The assessment suggests that poppy cultivation is not only expected to expand in areas where it already existed in 2012, e.g. in the area north of the Boghra canal in Hilmand province or in Bawka district in Farah province but also in new areas or in areas where poppy cultivation was stopped. In eastern Afghanistan, in Nangarhar province, farmers resumed cultivation even in districts where poppy has not been present for the last four years. In the Northern and Northeastern region, the provinces of Balkh and Takhar which were poppy-free for many years are at risk of resuming poppy cultivation.

On a more positive note, some provinces with a low level of poppy cultivation, namely Ghor, Kabul, Kapisa, Hirat Zabul and Baghlan may gain poppy-free status in 2013 if effective eradication is implemented on time.


Unveiled – Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station Early Photos

On February 1, 2013, Tokyo Electric Power released over 100 Zipped files containing several hundred photos of the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station taken from time of the tsunami on March 11, 2011 to April 11, 2011. They are among the earliest TEPCO photos which show the initial damage by the tsunami, aftermath of the explosions and efforts to survey, control and stabilize the plant. Most have not been widely published. These are selections.


Compare to high-resolution aerial photos taken March 24-30, 2011:

Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station Early Photos

Photos of March 15, 2011. Captions by TEPCO.
Appearance of Unit 3 Reactor Building after explosion. Photo taken on 2011.3.15



Video – How PR Came to Rule Modern Journalism

“You can’t believe everything you read in the papers.” Everyone knows this, but few people realise this truism extends far beyond the celebrity pages and gossip columns, and spills into ‘real’ news. Here, the near-invisible influence of PR companies is often pivotal in deciding what news gets told, and how it gets reported. By taking a brief look at the history of modern journalism, and using real examples taken from recent headlines, Michael Marshall will show why you really, really can’t believe everything you read in the papers.

Michael Marshall is the co-founder and vice-president of the Merseyside Skeptics Society and appears on the Skeptics with a K and Strange Quarks podcasts. Besides organising national and international campaigns against homeopathy, he writes about the often-unsuspected role of PR in modern media. He was once called by Ben Goldacre ‘a mighty nerd from Liverpool’. He was also once rather amusingly called a very rude word by self-proclaimed psychic Joe Power.

QED is a two-day science and skepticism conference taking place in the Piccadilly Hotel, Manchester on the 10th-11th March 2012.

Fantastic speakers from the worlds of science and entertainment will be joining us for a weekend celebration of science, reason and critical thinking.


“Intelligence activity in the past decades has, all too often, exceeded
the restraints on the exercise of governmental power that are imposed by
our country’s Constitution, laws, and traditions,” according to the
Congressional Research Service.

The CRS, which shuns polemical claims, presents that assertion as a simple
statement of fact (although cautiously sourced to the 1976 Church Committee
report) in a newly updated report on FBI terrorism investigations.

The report reviews the FBI investigative process, the statutory framework
within which it operates, and the tools at its disposal, along with
oversight considerations for Congress. See The Federal Bureau of
Investigation and Terrorism Investigations, April 24, 2013:

Click to access R41780.pdf

Other new or newly updated CRS reports include the following.

Terrorism, Miranda, and Related Matters, April 24, 2013:

Click to access R41252.pdf

Terrorism Risk Insurance: Issue Analysis and Overview of Current Program,
April 26, 2013:

Click to access R42716.pdf

U.S. Air Force Bomber Sustainment and Modernization: Background and Issues
for Congress, April 23, 2013:

Click to access R43049.pdf

Multiyear Procurement (MYP) and Block Buy Contracting in Defense
Acquisition: Background and Issues for Congress, April 25, 2013:

Click to access R41909.pdf

U.S.-South Korea Relations, April 26, 2013:

Click to access R41481.pdf

Iran Sanctions, April 24, 2013:

Click to access RS20871.pdf

Intelligence Issues for Congress, April 23, 2013:

Click to access RL33539.pdf

Inflation-Indexing Elements in Federal Entitlement Programs, April 24,

Click to access R42000.pdf

Changes in the Arctic: Background and Issues for Congress, April 25, 2013:

Click to access R41153.pdf

Prevalence of Mental Illness in the United States: Data Sources and
Estimates, April 24, 2013:

Click to access R43047.pdf


The Department of Defense has revised its 1996 directive on non-lethal
weapons (NLW) to guide future development and procurement of this category
of weaponry.

“Unlike conventional lethal weapons that destroy their targets principally
through blast, penetration, and fragmentation, NLW employ means other than
gross physical destruction to prevent the target from functioning. NLW are
intended to have relatively reversible effects on personnel or materiel,”
the revised directive explains.

“It is DoD policy that NLW doctrine and concepts of operation will be
developed to reinforce deterrence and expand the range of options available
to commanders.”

The directive does not apply to information operations, cyber operations
or electronic warfare capabilities. See DoD Executive Agent for Non-Lethal
Weapons (NLW), and NLW Policy, DoD Directive 3000.03E, April 25, 2013:

Click to access d3000_03.pdf

Other noteworthy new or updated DoD issuances include the following.

DoD Nuclear Weapons Surety Program, DoD Directive 3150.02, April 24, 2013:

Click to access d3150_02.pdf

DoD Counterfeit Prevention Policy, DoD Instruction 4140.67, April 26,

Click to access i4140_67.pdf

Assistant to the Secretary of Defense for Intelligence Oversight
(ATSD(IO)), DoD Directive 5148.11, April 24, 2013:

Click to access d5148_11.pdf

Use of Excess Ballistic Missiles for Space Launch, Directive-Type
Memorandum (DTM) 11-008, July 5, 2011, Incorporating Change 3, April 25,

Click to access dtm-11-008.pdf

Secrecy News is written by Steven Aftergood and published by the
Federation of American Scientists.

The Secrecy News Blog is at:

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Steven Aftergood
Project on Government Secrecy
Federation of American Scientists
voice: (202) 454-4691
twitter: @saftergood


Liebe Leser,

wieder einmal versucht die dubiose “GoMoPa” und deren Handlanger, Konsorten und Komparsen mutmasslich “Peter Ehlers” und “Nawito” von mutmasslich eigenen Taten abzulenken und mir perfide den “Schwarzen Peter” zuzuschieben.

Wie bereits im Falle meines angeblichen falschen Magistertitels, dem Fall Meridian Capital etc pp die Liste ist endlos.

Ein Sammelsurium von Kolportagen, Fabeln, Märchen und Latrinenpatrolen…

Dabei liegen die Beweis klar auf dem Tisch:

Die etablierten Medien wie “ZEIT” und “Süddeutsche Zeitung” haben es aufgedeckt, was hier im Fall “S &K”/”GoMoPa” wirklich lief.

Nachdem zahlreiche Internetangriffe nichts gebarcht haben, nun wieder dieser Unsinn.

Hier noch einmal meine Stellungnahme zu der “GoMoPa”/Ehlers/Nawito-Absurdistan-Agit-Propaganda:

Dear Readers,

let me just briefly comment a mental cyberattack which should distract your attention from the real issues.

I have never had any consulting position or contract for any German company.

I have never worked for the Axel Springer Publishing House – not even as a freelance journalist.

These facts are clear and can be verified easily – just by calling Axel Springer.

The facts are

1) Dr. Rainer Zitelmann worked for the Axel Springer Company. You can esaily find out what happened there. I just mention the word “Auschwitz” in this context…As you see from his website and in the internet Zitelmann is in fact consulting many German companies.

2) “GoMoPa” had in fact a consultation contract with estavis and got in fact money from estavis and many various companies i.e. “S&K”

These contracts are known and 100% true and published by various media i.e. “ZEIT”, “MANAGER MAGAZIN”, “SUEDDEUTSCHE ZEITUNG” etc.

3) Meridian Capital was the subject of “GoMoPa”s articles.

4) “Nawito” whover or whatever it is did not even bother to contact us.

5) The “information” about one of our companies is false.

6) The “Nawito” informer “Peter Ehlers” did in fact attack Chancellor Merkel and the Minister of Finance Wolfgang Schäuble as “Deutschlands bekannteste Hehler” to name just one fact about “Peter Ehlers” or whatever his name might be who by the way got a lot of money from the bancrupt SAM AG which was also subject of “GoMoPa”‘s reporting and we know similiar cases of this endeavour.

7) The last editor who was attacked by such cyberattacks died in a very mysterious way, Heinz Gerlach. He might have been controversial but nevertheless – the truth is the truth.

He was the first journalist to publish the truth about the mysterious headquarter of “GoMoPa” in New York and their consulting contract with estavis and died suddenly and totally unexpected for most of us – not for all.

The circumstances of his death remain unsolved for me.

We are ready to proof this everytime and do not work with “colportations”.

Obviously cyberattacks on our websites since years are not enough to keep the truth down – defamation must be added – a wellknown STASI technique to irritate the public – MENTAL AND PYSICAL CYBERATTACKS done by the well-know suspects.

Sincerely your

Bernd Pulch

Magister Artium der Publizistik, Germanistik und Komparatistik



The attacked website are for example:

and about 20 more.

Public Intelligence – DoD Issues Instructions on Military Support of Civilian Law Enforcement


Soldiers from the 3rd Battalion, 321st Field Artillery Regiment, XVIII Fires Brigade train last December to “respond to an escalating civil-disturbance situation caused by unhappy simulated hurricane victims.” According to an article produced by the 82nd Combat Aviation Brigade, the training was designed to prepare the soldiers “for their upcoming assignment as a quick reaction and rapid response force for U.S. Army North Command in support of emergencies in the United States.”

Public Intelligence

The Department of Defense has issued an instruction clarifying the rules for the involvement of military forces in civilian law enforcement. The instruction establishes “DoD policy, assigns responsibilities, and provides procedures for DoD support to Federal, State, tribal, and local civilian law enforcement agencies, including responses to civil disturbances within the United States.”

The new instruction titled “Defense Support of Civilian Law Enforcement Agencies” was released at the end of February, replacing several older directives on military assistance to civilian law enforcement and civil disturbances. The instruction requires that senior DoD officials develop “procedures and issue appropriate direction as necessary for defense support of civilian law enforcement agencies in coordination with the General Counsel of the Department of Defense, and in consultation with the Attorney General of the United States”, including “tasking the DoD Components to plan for and to commit DoD resources in response to requests from civil authorities for [civil disturbance operations].” Military officials are to coordinate with “civilian law enforcement agencies on policies to further DoD cooperation with civilian law enforcement agencies” and the heads of the combatant commands are instructed to issue procedures for “establishing local contact points in subordinate commands for purposes of coordination with Federal, State, tribal, and local civilian law enforcement officials.”

In addition to defining responsibilities for military coordination with local law enforcement, the instruction describes circumstances in which direct participation in civilian law enforcement is permissible. Under the Posse Comitatus Act of 1878, U.S military personnel are generally prohibited from assisting in civilian law enforcement functions such as search and seizure, interdiction of vehicles, arrest and interrogation, surveillance or using force except for in self-defense. Though the Posse Comitatus Act originally referred only to the Army, it was extended in 1956 to include the Air Force. Subsequent DoD regulations prevent the use of the Marine Corps or Navy for civilian law enforcement functions. In 1981, this principle was further codified in 10 USC § 375 which directs the Secretary of Defense to ensure that military activities do “not include or permit direct participation by a member of the Army, Navy, Air Force, or Marine Corps in a search, seizure, arrest, or other similar activity unless participation in such activity by such member is otherwise authorized by law.”

Though the Posse Comitatus Act is the primary restriction on direct DoD involvement in law enforcement functions, it does not prevent military personnel from participating in circumstances “authorized by the Constitution or Act of Congress.” This includes circumstances involving “insurrection, domestic violence, or conspiracy that hinders the execution of State or Federal law” as well as actions “taken under express statutory authority.” The DoD’s instruction includes a list of more than a dozen “laws that permit direct DoD participation in civilian law enforcement” including many obscure statutes that are more than a hundred years old. For example, a law passed in 1882 and codified under 16 USC § 593 allows for the President to use land and naval forces to “prevent the felling, cutting down, or other destruction of the timber of the United States in Florida.” Likewise, the Guano Islands Act of 1856 enables the President to use land and naval forces to protect the rights of a discoverer of an island covered by the Act.

Military commanders also have “emergency authority” to use military forces in civilian law enforcement functions “in extraordinary emergency circumstances where prior authorization by the President is impossible and duly constituted local authorities are unable to control the situation, to engage temporarily in activities that are necessary to quell large-scale, unexpected civil disturbances”. This authority is limited to actions “necessary to prevent significant loss of life or wanton destruction of property and are necessary to restore governmental function and public order” and “provide adequate protection for Federal property or Federal governmental functions.” In fact, an enclosure to the DoD instruction describing requirements for support of civil disturbance operations states that military commanders “shall not take charge of any function of civil government unless absolutely necessary under conditions of extreme emergency.” According to the instruction, any “commander who is directed, or undertakes, to control such functions shall strictly limit DoD actions to emergency needs and shall facilitate the reestablishment of civil responsibility at the earliest time possible.”

Unveiled – Suspect in Boston Marathon Attack Charged with Using a Weapon of Mass Destruction

WASHINGTON—Attorney General Eric Holder announced today that Dzhokhar A. Tsarnaev, 19, a U.S. citizen and resident of Cambridge, Massachusetts, has been charged with using a weapon of mass destruction against persons and property at the Boston Marathon on April 15, 2013, resulting in the death of three people and injuries to more than 200 people.

In a criminal complaint unsealed today in U.S. District Court for the District of Massachusetts, Tsarnaev is specifically charged with one count of using and conspiring to use a weapon of mass destruction (namely, an improvised explosive device, or IED) against persons and property within the United States resulting in death and with one count of malicious destruction of property by means of an explosive device resulting in death. The statutory charges authorize a penalty, upon conviction, of death or imprisonment for life or any term of years. Tsarnaev had his initial court appearance today from his hospital room.

“Although our investigation is ongoing, today’s charges bring a successful end to a tragic week for the city of Boston and for our country,” said Attorney General Eric Holder. “Our thoughts and prayers remain with each of the bombing victims and brave law enforcement professionals who lost their lives or suffered serious injuries as a result of this week’s senseless violence. Thanks to the valor of state and local police, the dedication of federal law enforcement and intelligence officials, and the vigilance of members of the public, we’ve once again shown that those who target innocent Americans and attempt to terrorize our cities will not escape from justice. We will hold those who are responsible for these heinous acts accountable to the fullest extent of the law.”

“The events of the past week underscore in stark terms the need for continued vigilance against terrorist threats both at home and abroad,” said John Carlin, Acting Assistant Attorney General for National Security. “Friday’s arrest and today’s charges demonstrate what can be achieved by a collaborative, ‘round-the-clock response involving law enforcement officers, intelligence professionals, prosecutors, and the general public.”

“Today’s charges are the culmination of extraordinary law enforcement coordination and the tireless efforts of so many, including ordinary citizens who became heroes as they responded to the call for help in the hours and days following the Marathon tragedy,” said Carmen Ortiz, U.S. Attorney for the District of Massachusetts. “The impact of these crimes has been far-reaching, affecting a worldwide community that is looking for peace and justice. We hope that this prosecution will bring some small measure of comfort both to the public at large and to the victims and their families that justice will be served. While we will not be able to comment on any possible communications between the suspect and law enforcement at this time, as a general rule, the government will always seek to elicit all the actionable intelligence and information we can from terrorist suspects taken into our custody.”

“The events of this week have moved at a breakneck pace. Yet the one consistent element of this investigation has been the collective efforts of our law enforcement and intelligence partners, working side-by-side, day and night, to identify and find those responsible for this attack, while keeping the public safe,” said Rick DesLauriers, Special Agent in Charge of the FBI’s Boston Division. “We are grateful to the American people for their assistance; we would not be successful without their trust and support. We will continue to investigate this matter with the greatest diligence and expediency, and we will do all that we can to protect those we serve.”

“Friday night’s capture of the suspect brought immediate relief to a community from a public safety viewpoint. However, much work remains and many questions require answers. Today’s charges represent another step on the long road toward justice for the victims of these crimes. On behalf of the citizens of this great commonwealth, the Massachusetts State Police will continue to work diligently with our federal and local partners to bring this defendant to justice for his alleged acts and ensure the public’s safety,” said Colonel Timothy P. Alben, Superintendent of the Massachusetts State Police.

“Finding the alleged perpetrators of this savage act of terrorism four days after the attack on the city of Boston was a herculean effort and shows the true cooperation and dedication of the law enforcement community,” said Boston Police Commissioner Ed Davis. “We were relentless in our pursuit of the suspects. The arrest of Tsarnaev and today’s charges should send a clear message to those who look to do us harm, the entire law enforcement community will go after you, find you, and bring you to justice.”

This investigation was conducted by the FBI’s Boston Division, the Boston Police Department, the Massachusetts State Police, and member agencies of the Boston Joint Terrorism Task Force, which is composed of more than 30 federal, state, and local enforcement agencies, including the Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms, and Explosives; U.S. Immigration and Customs Enforcement-Homeland Security Investigations; U.S. Marshals Service; U.S. Secret Service; the Massachusetts Bay Transit Authority; and others. In addition, the Watertown Police Department; the Cambridge Police Department; the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) Police Department; the Boston Fire Department; the National Guard; and police, fire, and emergency responders from across Massachusetts and New England played critical roles in the investigation and response.

This case is being prosecuted by Assistant U.S. Attorneys William Weinreb and Aloke Chakravarty from the Anti-Terrorism and National Security Unit of the U.S. Attorney’s Office for the District of Massachusetts, with assistance from the Counterterrorism Section of the Justice Department’s National Security Division.

The public is reminded that charges contained in an indictment or criminal complaint are merely allegations and that defendants are presumed innocent unless and until proven guilty.

TOP-SECRET – Bilderberger Ghosts Praise Eric Schmidt’s Book

Bilderberger Ghosts Praise Eric Schmidt’s Book
The New Digital Age
Advanced Praise

“Every day, technological innovations are giving people around the world new opportunities to shape their own destinies. In this fascinating book, Eric Schmidt and Jared Cohen draw upon their unique experiences to show us a future of rising incomes, growing participation, and a genuine sense of community—if we make the right choices today.”

Bill Clinton, Former President of the United States

“This is a book that defines both the nature of the new world which the internet is creating; and its challenges. It describes a technological revolution in the making. How we navigate it is a challenge for countries, communities and citizens. There are no two people better equipped to explain what it means than Eric Schmidt and Jared Cohen.”

Tony Blair, Former Prime Minister of Great Britain and Northern Ireland

“Eric Schmidt and Jared Cohen have produced a searching meditation on technology and world order. Even those who disagree with some of their conclusions will learn much from this thought-provoking volume.”

Henry A. Kissinger, former Secretary of State

“The New Digital Age is must reading for anyone who wants to truly understand the depths of the digital revolution. Combining the skills of a social scientist and a computer scientist, Cohen and Schmidt blend the technical and the human, the scientific and the political, in ways I rarely saw while in government. They challenge the reader’s imagination on almost every page. Indeed, what will be the impact of virtual and physical worlds coexisting, the first generation of humans to have an indelible record, or more frequent revolutions without resolution as the digital age nurtures more celebrities than leaders. And these questions are just the beginning. Read on.”

General Michael Hayden, Former Director of the CIA

“This is the book I have been waiting for: a concise and persuasive description of technology’s impact on war, peace, freedom, and diplomacy. The New Digital Age is a guide to the future written by two experts who possess a profound understanding of humanity’s altered prospects in a wireless world. There are insights on every page and surprising conclusions (and questions) in every chapter. For experts and casual readers alike, Eric Schmidt and Jared Cohen have produced an indispensable book.”

Madeleine Albright, Former Secretary of State

“This is the most important — and fascinating — book yet written about how the digital age will affect our world. With vivid examples and brilliant analysis, it shows how the internet and other communications technologies will empower individuals and transform the way nations and businesses operate. How will different societies make tradeoffs involving privacy, freedom, control, security, and the relationship between the physical and virtual worlds? This realistic but deeply optimistic book provides the guideposts. It’s both profoundly wise and wondrously readable.”

Walter Isaacson, President and CEO of the Aspen Institute and Author of Steve Jobs

“The New Digital Age: Reshaping the Future of People, Nations and Business offers an intriguing fusion of ideas and insights about how the virtual world is intersecting with the “Westphalian order.” It seeks a balance between the discontinuities of technologists’ “revolutions” and the traditionalism of internationalists’ study of states, power, and behavior. The authors explain that technology is not a panacea, yet the uses of technology can make a world of difference. This book should launch a valuable debate about the practical implications of this new connectivity for citizens and policy makers, societies and governments.”

Robert B. Zoellick, Former President of the World Bank Group, U.S. Trade Representative, & U.S. Deputy Secretary of State

“Few people in the world are doing more to imagine – and build – The New Digital Age than Eric Schmidt and Jared Cohen. With this book, they are looking into their crystal ball and inviting the world to peek in.”

Michael R. Bloomberg, New York City Mayor and founder of Bloomberg LP

“We have long needed an incisive study of how the ever evolving world of technology leaves almost no aspect of life unchanged. We have it in The New Digital Age. Eric Schmidt and Jared Cohen offer a rigorous approach to decoding what the future holds in a story that is as well written and entertaining as it is important.”

General Brent Scowcroft, Former National Security Advisor

“At last, a brilliant guide book for the next century—what the future holds for entrepreneurs, revolutionaries, politicians, and ordinary citizens alike. Schmidt and Cohen offer a dazzling glimpse into how the new digital revolution is changing our lives. This book is the most insightful exploration of our future world I’ve ever read, and once I started reading I was simply unable to put it down.”

Sir Richard Branson, Founder and Chairman, Virgin Group

“[The New Digital Age] takes you on a wonderfully stimulating and important journey. It will make you rethink your concepts of the digital age, the way the world works, what lies ahead, and what all this means for you, your family and your community … Eric Schmidt and Jared Cohen brilliantly detail for us how the digital age is rapidly altering the balance of power between citizens and governments, between the physical and the virtual worlds, and between good and bad … [This book] is a must read for all those seeking to understand, and navigate well a fundamental structural shift that will play a critical role in determining the wellbeing of current and future generations.”

Mohamed El-Erian, CEO of Pimco

“Eric Schmidt and Jared Cohen’s thoughtful, well-researched work elucidates the staggering impact of technology on our daily lives, as well as what surprising and incredible developments the future may hold. Readers might be left with more questions than answers, but that’s the idea—we are at our best when we ask ‘What’s next?'”

Elon Musk, Founder of SpaceX and co-founder of Tesla Motors and PayPal

“Jared Cohen and Eric Schmidt have written a brilliant book that should be required reading for anyone who wishes to understand the huge ramifications of the Age of Google not only for our lifestyles but, more importantly, for our privacy, our democracy and our security … you had better download The New Digital Age today. The ‘technoptimistic’ case will never be more smartly argued.”

Niall Ferguson, author of Civilization: The West and the Rest

Unveiled – USA v. Dzhokhar Tsarnaev Court Filings

3 April 2013

USA v. Dzhokhar Tsarnaev Court Filings

United States District Court
District of Massachusetts (Boston)

Case title: USA v. Tsarnaev
Date Filed: 04/21/2013

Assigned to: Magistrate Judge Marianne B. Bowler

Defendant (1)
Dzhokhar Tsarnaev represented by Miriam Conrad
Federal Public Defender Office
51 Sleeper Street
Fifth Floor
Boston, MA 02210
Fax: 617-223-8080
Designation: Public Defender or Community Defender Appointment

Timothy G. Watkins
Federal Public Defender Office
District of Massachusetts
51 Sleeper Street
5th Floor
Boston, MA 02210
Fax: 617-223-8080
Designation: Public Defender or Community Defender Appointment

William W. Fick
Federal Public Defender Office
District of Massachusetts
51 Sleeper Street
5th Floor
Boston, MA 02210
Fax: 617-223-8080
Designation: Public Defender or Community Defender Appointment

Pending Counts

Highest Offense Level (Opening)

Terminated Counts

Highest Offense Level (Terminated)

18:2332a(a)…Use of a Weapon of Mass Destruction; 18:844(i)…Malicious Destruction of Property Resulting in Death

USA represented by Aloke Chakravarty
United States Attorney’s Office MA
Suite 9200
1 Courthouse Way
Boston, MA 02210
Fax: 617-748-3664
Designation: Assistant US Attorney

William D. Weinreb
United States Attorney’s Office
John Joseph Moakley Federal Courthouse
1 Courthouse Way
Suite 900
Boston, MA 02210
Fax: 617-748-3358
Designation: Assistant US Attorney

Date Filed # Docket Text
04/21/2013 1 MOTION to Seal Case as to Dzhokhar Tsarnaev by USA. (Alves-Baptista, Antonia) (Entered: 04/22/2013)
04/21/2013 2 Magistrate Judge Marianne B. Bowler: ENDORSED ORDER entered granting 1 Motion to Seal Case as to Dzhokhar Tsarnaev (1) (Alves-Baptista, Antonia) (Entered: 04/22/2013)
04/21/2013 3 SEALED COMPLAINT as to Dzhokhar Tsarnaev (1). (Attachments: # 1 Affidavit of Daniel R. Genck, # 2 JS45)(Alves-Baptista, Antonia) (Entered: 04/22/2013)
04/22/2013 5 ELECTRONIC NOTICE of Case Assignment as to Dzhokhar Tsarnaev; Magistrate Judge Marianne B. Bowler assigned to case. (Abaid, Kimberly) (Entered: 04/22/2013)
04/22/2013 7 ELECTRONIC Clerk’s Notes for proceedings held before Magistrate Judge Marianne B. Bowler:Initial Appearance as to Dzhokhar Tsarnaev held on 4/22/2013 at Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center. Court advises the defendant of his rights and the charges against him. Government states the maximum penalties and moves for detention. Defendant agrees to an order of voluntary detention without prejudice. Defendant declines to answer bail questions and assents to a probable cause hearing on May 30, 2013 at 10:00am. Court is satisfied that the defendant is alert and able to respond to the charges. Defendant is remanded from the custody of the FBI agents present to the U.S. Marshals. (Probable cause hearing set for 5/30/2013 10:00 AM in Courtroom 25 before Magistrate Judge Marianne B. Bowler.) (Attorneys present: Weinreb for the Government. Fick for the defendant.)Court Reporter Name and Contact or digital recording information: James Gibbons ( (Garvin, Brendan) (Entered: 04/22/2013)
04/22/2013 Attorney update in case as to Dzhokhar Tsarnaev. Attorney Conrad, Fick, Watkins added. (Garvin, Brendan) (Entered: 04/22/2013)
04/22/2013 8 MOTION to Unseal Case as to Dzhokhar Tsarnaev by USA. (Garvin, Brendan) (Entered: 04/22/2013)
04/22/2013 9 Magistrate Judge Marianne B. Bowler: ENDORSED ORDER entered granting 8 Motion to Unseal Case as to Dzhokhar Tsarnaev (1) (Garvin, Brendan) (Entered: 04/22/2013)
04/22/2013 10 MOTION to Appoint Counsel as to Dzhokhar Tsarnaev. (Conrad, Miriam) (Entered: 04/22/2013)


The White House should undertake a focused effort to reduce national
security secrecy, some 30 public interest organizations urged President
Obama in a letter today.

Click to access steering.pdf

The groups called upon the President to adopt a recommendation of the
Public Interest Declassification Board to set up a White House-led Security
Classification Reform Steering Committee.

“A presidentially appointed Steering Committee would provide a mechanism
for identifying and coordinating needed changes and for overcoming internal
agency obstacles to change,” the group letter said. “It would also reflect
the urgency of reining in a classification system that is largely

To be effective, though, the proposed Steering Committee would need to be
something more than just a deliberative, coordinating body, such as the
ill-fated Security Policy Board of the 1990s.

Specifically, it would require “a clear mandate to reduce the size and
scope of the national security classification system,” the group letter
said, as well as active White House participation to ensure agency
cooperation and compliance.

In principle, reductions in national security secrecy can actually benefit
government agencies by diminishing the significant financial and
operational costs they incur for classification. But in practice, such
reductions have been hard to accomplish and agencies have resisted any
externally imposed limits on their presumed autonomy to classify as they
see fit.

Of all the potential ways to reduce secrecy that could be envisioned, the
proposal for a White House-led Steering Committee is currently the most
salient. That’s because it was recommended by the Public Interest
Declassification Board, who developed it in response to a request from
President Obama himself.

“I also look forward to reviewing recommendations from the study that the
National Security Advisor will undertake in cooperation with the Public
Interest Declassification Board to design a more fundamental transformation
of the security classification system,” the President wrote in a December
29, 2009 memorandum.

Now the recommendations that the President looked forward to are in hand,
and it will be up to the White House to act.


Dozens of federal laws protect employees who report waste, fraud or abuse
by their employers. Some of those laws, particularly those that apply to
private-sector workers, have been strengthened in recent years, according
to a new survey from the Congressional Research Service.

“Eleven of the forty laws reviewed in this report were enacted after 1999.
Among these laws are the Sarbanes-Oxley Act, the FDA Food Safety
Modernization Act, and the Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer
Protection Act,” the CRS report said.

The report “focuses on key aspects of the federal whistleblower and
anti-retaliation laws. For each law, the report summarizes the activities
that are protected, how the law’s protections are enforced, whether the law
provides a private right of action, the remedies prescribed by the law, and
the year the law’s whistleblower or anti-retaliation provisions were
adopted and amended.”

The report does not address national security whistleblowers, or those who
disclose classified information with or without authorization. See Survey
of Federal Whistleblower and Anti-Retaliation Laws, April 22, 2013:

Click to access R43045.pdf

Other new or newly updated CRS reports that Congress has not made publicly
available include the following.

State Taxation of Internet Transactions, April 19, 2013:

Click to access R41853.pdf

Drought in the United States: Causes and Issues for Congress, April 22,

Click to access RL34580.pdf

Department of Homeland Security Appropriations: A Summary of Congressional
Action for FY2013, April 22, 2013:

Click to access R42557.pdf

The FY2014 State and Foreign Operations Budget Request, April 18, 2013:

Click to access R43043.pdf

U.S.-EU Cooperation Against Terrorism, April 22, 2013:

Click to access RS22030.pdf

Expediting the Return to Work: Approaches in the Unemployment Compensation
Program, April 18, 2013:

Click to access R43044.pdf

Economic Recovery: Sustaining U.S. Economic Growth in a Post-Crisis
Economy, April 18, 2013:

Click to access R41332.pdf

Federal Research and Development Funding: FY2013, April 19, 2013:

Click to access R42410.pdf

The U.S. Export Control System and the President’s Reform Initiative,
April 19, 2013:

Click to access R41916.pdf

Mexico’s Drug Trafficking Organizations: Source and Scope of the Violence,
April 15, 2013:

Click to access R41576.pdf

Secrecy News is written by Steven Aftergood and published by the
Federation of American Scientists.

The Secrecy News Blog is at:

To SUBSCRIBE to Secrecy News, go to:


OR email your request to

Secrecy News is archived at:

Support the FAS Project on Government Secrecy with a donation:

Steven Aftergood
Project on Government Secrecy
Federation of American Scientists
voice: (202) 454-4691
twitter: @saftergood

Unveiled – National Counterterrorism Center Says Urban Exploration Could “Aid Terrorists”

ublic Intelligence

The National Counterterrorism Center (NCTC) is warning law enforcement and first responders that urban exploration, an activity that involves trying to gain access to restricted or abandoned man-made structures, can provide useful information for terrorists conducting surveillance of a potential target. Also known as “building hacking”, urban exploration has been around in its modern form for decades, tracing some its recent history to post-war exploration of the Parisian catacombs and members of MIT’s Tech Model Railroad Club Signals and Power Subcommittee, who organized explorations of steam tunnels and rooftops around campus in the late 1950s.

In an advisory released to law enforcement in November 2012 titled Urban Exploration Offers Insight Into Critical Infrastructure Vulnerabilities, the NCTC warns of the potential risks posed by urban explorers and their online posting of photos and videos depicting their exploration. The NCTC document describes urban explorers as “hobbyists who seek illicit access to transportation and industrial facilities in urban areas” including rooftops, utility tunnels and bridges. According to the NCTC, photos and videos posted online by urban explorers “could be used by terrorists to remotely identify and surveil potential targets” which could “aid terrorists in pinpointing locations in dense urban environments.” The document also makes specific reference to the advancement of navigation and mapping technology, including three-dimensional modeling and geo-tagging, as potentially aiding terrorists to conduct online surveillance of a target. Corporate websites can often provide “information about buildings” and “social media postings of explorers’ activity often identify access points and security flaws” that could be exploited by terrorists. A 2010 bulletin issued by the Department of Homeland Security expressed similar concerns about the use of Google Earth and other publicly available mapping software for terrorist surveillance. The bulletin stated that “live Web-based camera feeds combined with street-level and direct overhead imagery views from Internet imagery sites allow terrorists to conduct remote surveillance of multiple potential targets without exposing themselves to detection.”

The NCTC advisory also lists several locations, such as bridges, utility tunnels, rooftops and subways, where an urban explorer might reveal “security flaws”. Along with each location, there is a list of potential access locations and security vulnerabilities that the NCTC believes an urban explorer’s postings could potentially reveal. For example, urban explorers could discover and document the use of a bridge’s “ladders, crosswalk scaffoldings, trap doors, scuttles, and hatches” and reveal methods of accessing “structural components, including caissons (the structures that house the anchor points of a bridge suspension system), to identify weaknesses.”

Past activities by urban explorers have occasionally been mistaken for potential terrorist activity. In 2011 four men were arrested in London for “suspicion of railway trespass and burglary” after they were found near an elevator used by private contractors working on the rail lines for the London Underground. The men were arrested at the Russell Square station, one of the locations of the 7/7 terrorist attacks, after security camera operators saw the men in dark clothing with cameras and feared preparations for a terrorist attack around the upcoming royal wedding between Prince William and Catherine Middleton. A few months later, four men were arrested in New York City for criminal trespass after a local resident saw them “carrying Roman candles and cameras” into the Second Avenue Subway tunnel. The men identified themselves as urban explorers and said they planned to use the Roman candles for lighting photographs.

Confidential – Philadelphia La Cosa Nostra Capo Pleads Guilty to Racketeering Conspiracy

WASHINGTON—Anthony Staino, 55, of Swedesboro, New Jersey, pleaded guilty yesterday to participating in a racketeering conspiracy as a capo in the Philadelphia La Cosa Nostra (LCN) family and committing loan sharking and illegal gambling.

Acting Assistant Attorney General Mythili Raman of the Justice Department’s Criminal Division, U.S. Attorney Zane David Memeger of the Eastern District of Pennsylvania, and Edward J. Hanko, Special Agent in Charge of the FBI’s Philadelphia Division, made the announcement after the plea was accepted by U.S. District Judge Eduardo C. Robreno of the Eastern District of Pennsylvania.

Staino pleaded guilty to conspiring to conduct and participate in the affairs of the Philadelphia LCN family through a pattern of racketeering activity. He faces a maximum penalty of 70 years in prison when he is sentenced on Jul. 17, 2013.

Through court documents and statements yesterday in court, Staino admitted that, as a made member and capo of the Philadelphia LCN family, he gave a usurious loan to an undercover FBI agent and used threats of violence to collect payments on the loan. Staino also admitted that he ran an illegal electronic gambling device business for the mob, providing video poker machines, and other gambling devices for bars, restaurants, convenience stores, coffee shops, and other locations in Philadelphia and its suburbs and then collected the illegal gambling proceeds.

The case is being investigated by the FBI, the Internal Revenue Service-Criminal Investigation, the Pennsylvania State Police, the New Jersey State Police, the Philadelphia Police Department, the U.S. Department of Labor’s Office of Inspector General Office of Labor Racketeering and Fraud Investigations, and the U.S. Department of Labor’s Employee Benefits Security Administration. Additional assistance was provided by the New Jersey Department of Corrections.

The case is being prosecuted by Trial Attorney John S. Han of the Criminal Division’s Organized Crime and Gang Section and Assistant U.S. Attorneys Frank A. Labor, III and Suzanne B. Ercole of the Eastern District of Pennsylvania. Valuable prosecutorial assistance was provided by the Pennsylvania Office of the Attorney General.

WASHINGTON—Anthony Staino, 55, of Swedesboro, New Jersey, pleaded guilty yesterday to participating in a racketeering conspiracy as a capo in the Philadelphia La Cosa Nostra (LCN) family and committing loan sharking and illegal gambling.

Acting Assistant Attorney General Mythili Raman of the Justice Department’s Criminal Division, U.S. Attorney Zane David Memeger of the Eastern District of Pennsylvania, and Edward J. Hanko, Special Agent in Charge of the FBI’s Philadelphia Division, made the announcement after the plea was accepted by U.S. District Judge Eduardo C. Robreno of the Eastern District of Pennsylvania.

Staino pleaded guilty to conspiring to conduct and participate in the affairs of the Philadelphia LCN family through a pattern of racketeering activity. He faces a maximum penalty of 70 years in prison when he is sentenced on Jul. 17, 2013.

Through court documents and statements yesterday in court, Staino admitted that, as a made member and capo of the Philadelphia LCN family, he gave a usurious loan to an undercover FBI agent and used threats of violence to collect payments on the loan. Staino also admitted that he ran an illegal electronic gambling device business for the mob, providing video poker machines, and other gambling devices for bars, restaurants, convenience stores, coffee shops, and other locations in Philadelphia and its suburbs and then collected the illegal gambling proceeds.

The case is being investigated by the FBI, the Internal Revenue Service-Criminal Investigation, the Pennsylvania State Police, the New Jersey State Police, the Philadelphia Police Department, the U.S. Department of Labor’s Office of Inspector General Office of Labor Racketeering and Fraud Investigations, and the U.S. Department of Labor’s Employee Benefits Security Administration. Additional assistance was provided by the New Jersey Department of Corrections.

The case is being prosecuted by Trial Attorney John S. Han of the Criminal Division’s Organized Crime and Gang Section and Assistant U.S. Attorneys Frank A. Labor, III and Suzanne B. Ercole of the Eastern District of Pennsylvania. Valuable prosecutorial assistance was provided by the Pennsylvania Office of the Attorney General.

Unveiled – PT Prime Minister Death and US October Surprise

1980 Death of Portugal Prime Minister and American October Surprise

I’m Frederico Duarte Carvalho, the Portuguese journalist and I’m investigating the connection between the 1980 death of Portuguese Prime-Minister and the American “October Surprise”.

It’s still an open case in Portugal and last month I was at the Portuguese Parliament to inform the MP about my investigation. Here’s a clip of what is at stake:

And here’s an English article about what we know so far in Portugal:

If you think your readers are interested on this case, please use this information for Cryptome.

And you can say that, for more information, I can be contacted at this e-mail


Best regards

Frederico Duarte Carvalho

Revealed – DoD Strategy for Homeland Defense and Defense Support of Civil Authorities February 2013


Defending U.S. territory and the people of the United States is the highest priority of the Department of Defense (DoD), and providing appropriate defense support of civil authorities (DSCA) is one of the Department’s primary missions. This Strategy for Homeland Defense and Defense Support of Civil Authorities orients the Department towards an increasingly complex strategic environment. It emphasizes innovative approaches, greater integration, deepening of external partnerships, and increased effectiveness and efficiencies in DoD’s homeland activities. It applies the vital capabilities of the Total Force – in the Active and Reserve Components – to make the nation more secure and resilient. Finally, the Strategy guides future decisions on homeland defense and civil support issues consistent with the Defense Strategic Guidance and the Quadrennial Defense Review (QDR).

This Strategy identifies two priority missions for the Department’s activities in the homeland from 2012 to 2020. DoD works with the Department of Homeland Security (DHS) and other actors to achieve these missions:

Defend U.S. territory from direct attack by state and non-state actors; and
Provide assistance to domestic civil authorities in the event of natural or manmade disasters, potentially in response to a very significant or catastrophic event.

These priority missions are reinforced, supported, or otherwise enabled through the pursuit of the following objectives:

Counter air and maritime threats at a safe distance;
Prevent terrorist attacks on the homeland through support to law enforcement;
Maintain preparedness for domestic Chemical, Biological, Radiological, Nuclear (CBRN) incidents; and
Develop plans and procedures to ensure Defense Support of Civil Authorities during complex catastrophes.

This Strategy also defines a number of other priority lines of effort, or strategic approaches, that are intended to enhance the effectiveness of the Department’s homeland defense and civil support efforts. Although these items require a distinct departmental effort, they do so without adding significant resource requirements. These are:

Assure DoD’s ability to conduct critical missions;
Promote Federal-State unity of effort;
Conduct integrated planning with Federal and State authorities; and
Expand North American cooperation to strengthen civil support.

Defending the homeland neither begins nor ends at U.S. borders, and departmental planning is guided by the concept of an active, layered defense – a global defense that aims to deter and defeat aggression abroad and simultaneously protect the homeland. It is a defense-in-depth that relies on collection, analysis, and sharing of information and intelligence; strategic and regional deterrence; military presence in forward regions; and the ability to rapidly generate and project warfighting capabilities to defend the United States, its Allies, and its interests.

The homeland is a functioning theater of operations, where DoD regularly performs a wide range of defense and civil support activities through U.S. Northern Command (in concert with the North American Aerospace Defense Command, or NORAD), U.S. Pacific Command, and other DoD components. When faced with a crisis in the homeland – for example, a complex catastrophe as a result of an attack against the Nation or a natural disaster – DoD must be prepared to respond rapidly to this crisis while sustaining other defense and civil support operations. Within the homeland, arriving late to need is not an option.

The Department acts globally to defend the United States and its interests in all domains – land, air, maritime, space, and cyberspace – and similarly must be prepared to defend the homeland and support civil authorities in all domains. This Strategy is nested within a series of mutually supporting defense strategies and national guidance that provide policy and direction for the space and cyberspace domains, including the National Security Space Strategy, the Ballistic Missile Defense Review, and the Defense Strategy for Operating in Cyberspace. Other related and supporting strategies include the DoD Mission Assurance Strategy, Presidential Policy Directive 8 – National Preparedness, and Homeland Security Presidential Directive 25 – Arctic Region Policy. Finally, an active, layered defense of the homeland cannot be accomplished unilaterally nor conducted exclusively with military capabilities. The Western Hemisphere Defense Policy, the Strategy to Combat Transnational Organized Crime, the National Strategy for Counterterrorism, the National Strategy for Global Supply Chain Security and other regional and functional strategies articulate a range of defense, diplomatic, law enforcement, and capacity-building activities that the United States pursues with its neighbors to build an integrated, mutually-supportive concept of security.

Objective 2.b: Develop plans and procedures to ensure Defense Support of Civil Authorities during complex catastrophes

DoD has historically supported civil authorities in a wide variety of domestic contingencies, often in response to natural disasters. However, the 21st century security environment, the concentration of population in major urban areas, and the interconnected nature of critical infrastructures have all combined to fundamentally alter the scope and scale of “worst case” incidents for which DoD might be called upon to provide civil support. This environment creates the potential for complex catastrophes, with effects that would qualitatively and quantitatively exceed those experienced to date. In such events, the demand for DSCA would be unprecedented. Meeting this demand would be especially challenging if a cyber attack or other disruption of the electrical power grid creates cascading failures of critical infrastructure, threatening lives and greatly complicating DoD response operations.

DoD must be prepared to help civilian authorities save and protect lives during a complex catastrophe. An effective response will require investments in preparedness (planning, organizing, equipping, and training), improving concepts of operations, and better linking of established Federal and State capabilities and systems. The following areas represent the Department’s priorities for preparedness and response to catastrophic events:

Leveraging immediate response authority;
Geographically proximate force-sourcing; and
Ready access to non-National Guard Reserve forces.

Immediate response authority

DoD will explore methods to leverage “immediate response” authority to provide life-saving and logistical capabilities to a broader geographic area.

There are many large and medium-size DoD installations throughout the United States with significant resident or tenant capabilities that provide immediate life-saving and life-sustaining support to their on-base population. “Immediate response” authority allows responsible DoD officials to provide support, when requested by civilian agencies, to local communities and to State and Federal officials in extreme conditions. A key to success in meeting the urgent requirements of a catastrophic incident is time. DoD will therefore explore methods to most effectively leverage immediate response authority to employ capabilities to save lives, mitigate property damage, and prevent human suffering during catastrophic incidents.

Geographically proximate force-sourcing DoD will explore new concepts of operations to leverage the relative proximity of Defense installations to a disaster area to provide life-saving capabilities to local, State, and Federal authorities.

A key consideration for catastrophic events is that response elements have the highest probability to save lives within 72-96 hours after an incident. To address this time constraint, DoD will explore force-sourcing options that include a unit’s proximity to the affected area – in addition to its readiness level for overseas missions, which is the traditional driver for mission assignments – as a core consideration for sourcing for disaster response efforts. Additionally, the Department will develop a decision matrix to give senior DoD leaders a mechanism for expedited Defense support during a complex catastrophe, while identifying effects and risks resulting from those ecisions.

Ready access to non-National Guard Reserve forces

DoD will develop rules and modalities to execute its authority for involuntary Reserve mobilization for response to emergencies in the United States, including natural disasters. The Secretary of Defense now has the authority for involuntary mobilization of non-National Guard Reservists for domestic disaster response. The geographic dispersion of Reserve units and their life-saving medical, decontamination, engineering, and other capabilities mandate consideration of Reserve employment for any Total Force response. The Department will develop, refine, and implement policy that facilitates rapid approval for Reserve activation and employment.



An enormous volume of photographic imagery from the KH-9 HEXAGON
intelligence satellites was quietly declassified in January and will be
transferred to the National Archives later this year for subsequent public

The KH-9 satellites operated between 1971 and 1984. The imagery they
generated should be of historical interest with respect to a wide range of
late Cold War intelligence targets but is also expected to support current
scientific research on climate change and related fields of inquiry.

The film-based KH-9 satellites were officially declared “obsolete” by the
Director of National Intelligence in 2011. The KH-9 imagery was nominally
approved for declassification in February 2012, and then it was finally
declassified in fact this year.

ODNI spokesman Michael Birmingham said that approximately 97 percent of
the satellite imagery that was collected from the 19 successful KH-9
missions was formally declassified by DNI James R. Clapper on January 11,

“The small amount of imagery exempted from this declassification decision
will be removed prior to its accession to the National Archives (NARA) and
will remain classified pursuant to statute and national security interests,
and reviewed periodically to determine if additional declassification is
warranted,” Mr. Birmingham said last week.

The imagery is being transferred to NARA in stages, with final delivery
scheduled for September 2013, he said.

The transfer is being implemented pursuant to a November 2012 Memorandum
of Agreement between the National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency (NGA) and
the National Archives, under which the Archives is “responsible for
providing public access to the declassified imagery.”

Click to access kh9-moa.pdf

Reishia R. Kelsey of NGA public affairs confirmed that the imagery “will
be made available to the public following its accession to NARA” later this

The National Archives was not prepared last week to set a precise date for
public release. But an Archives official said that “NARA intends to make
these records available to the public at our research room in College Park,
MD as soon as possible following transfer.”

If successfully executed, the release of the KH-9 imagery will constitute
a breakthrough in the declassification and disclosure of national security
information. It will be one of several discrete but momentous shifts in
secrecy policy during the Obama Administration that have often gone
unrecognized or unappreciated. Though these declassification actions took
years or decades to accomplish, they have been downplayed by the White
House itself, which has seemed curiously ambivalent about them. They
include the public disclosure of the size of the U.S. nuclear weapons
arsenal, the routine publication of the annual intelligence budget request,
the release of the Office of Legal Counsel “torture memos,” the
declassification of the KH-9 satellite itself, and others.

The KH-9 imagery is being processed for public release pursuant to the
1995 Executive Order 12951 on “Release of Imagery Acquired by Space-based
National Intelligence Reconnaissance Systems.” That order had been
effectively dormant since the Clinton Administration, when the last major
release of intelligence satellite imagery (from the CORONA, ARGON and
LANYARD missions) took place.

The declassification of the KH-9 imagery is a massive undertaking, Mr.
Birmingham of ODNI said last year.

“For context, and to grasp the scope of the project, the KH-9/HEXAGON
system provided coverage over hundreds of millions of square miles of
territory during its 19 successful missions spanning 1971-1984,” he said.
“It is a daunting issue to address declassification of the program
specifics associated with an obsolete system such as the KH-9, which
involves the declassification of huge volumes of intelligence information
gathered on thousands of targets worldwide during a 13 year time period.”


Just as law enforcement relied upon surveillance cameras and personal
photography to enable the prompt identification of the perpetrators of the
Boston Marathon bombing, U.S. armed forces increasingly look to the
collection of still and motion imagery to support military operations.

Combat camera (COMCAM) capabilities support “operational planning, public
affairs, information operations, mission assessment, forensic, legal,
intelligence and other requirements during crises, contingencies, and
exercises around the globe,” according to newly updated military doctrine.

COMCAM personnel are “highly trained visual information professionals
prepared to deploy to the most austere operational environments at a
moment’s notice.”

COMCAM units “are adaptive and provide fully qualified and equipped
personnel to support sustained day or night operations” in-flight, on the
ground or undersea, as needed.

“Effectively employed COMCAM assets at the tactical level can potentially
achieve national, theater strategic, and operational level objectives in a
manner that lessens the requirement for combat in many situations,” the new
doctrine says. “Their products can counter adversary misinformation,
disinformation, and propaganda and help commanders gain situational
awareness on operations in a way written or verbal reports cannot.”

“The products can also provide historical documentation, public
information, or an evidentiary foundation… for forensic documentation of
evidence and legal proceedings. They can provide intelligence documentation
to include imagery for facial recognition and key leader engagements, and
support special reconnaissance.”

The newly issued COMCAM doctrine supersedes previous guidance from 2007.
See Combat Camera: Multi-Service Tactics, Techniques, and Procedures for
Combat Camera (COMCAM) Operations, April 2013.

Click to access atp3-55-12.pdf

Secrecy News is written by Steven Aftergood and published by the
Federation of American Scientists.

The Secrecy News Blog is at:

To SUBSCRIBE to Secrecy News, go to:


OR email your request to

Secrecy News is archived at:

Support the FAS Project on Government Secrecy with a donation:

Steven Aftergood
Project on Government Secrecy
Federation of American Scientists
voice: (202) 454-4691
twitter: @saftergood

SECRET – FBI Bulletin: Potential Use of Exploding Targets as Explosives in IEDs


The following bulletin was released in March by the FBI Terrorist Explosive Device Analytical Center. The bulletin was first reported on and made public by a writer for who published low quality images of the document. This version of the bulletin is significantly higher quality and contains renderable text making it easier to read and refer to.
(U//FOUO) The FBI assesses with high confidence recreationally used exploding targets (ETs), commonly referred to as tannerite, or reactive targets, can be used as an explosive for illicit purposes by criminals and extremists and explosive precursor chemicals (EPCs) present in ETs can be combined with other materials to manufacture explosives for use in improvised explosive devices (IEDs).

(U//FOUO) The FBI further assesses with medium confidence as the regulations and restrictions on ammonium nitrate-based fertilizers continue to increase, motivated criminals and extremists seeking ammonium nitrate for illicit use will be more likely to seek alternative sources, such as ETs. The FBI assesses with high confidence criminals and extremists in the United States and overseas have access to information about exploding targets due to the wide availability of such information on the Internet.

(U//FOUO) ETs May Serve as an Alternative Source of Ammonium Nitrate for Individuals Interested in Manufacturing Improvised Explosives

(U//FOUO) The FBI assesses with medium confidence criminals and extremists may actively be attempting to acquire ETs to obtain the ammonium nitrate for use in the manufacture of improvised explosives based on FBI investigations of individuals interested in manufacturing explosives. While other methods for illicit acquisition of commercial products containing ammonium nitrate exist, the FBI assesses with medium confidence the use of ETs as a source of ammonium nitrate could represent the latest evolution in tradecraft by which criminals and extremists attempt to circumvent existing regulations based on recent reported incidents of ET acquisition for explosives manufacturing.

(U//FOUO) Currently, ETs contain ammonium nitrate, and their purchase is not regulated to the same degree as ammonium nitrate-containing fertilizers. Alternatively, the personal manufacture of ETs could be used by criminals and extremists as a rationale for purchasing large amounts of ammonium nitrate from retailers.

• (U//FOUO) In April 2012 an identified US person in Washington State, who may have undergone aggressive online radicalization, sustained serious injury after an explosive device detonated prematurely. The device’s main charge consisted of an improvised explosive mixture containing ammonium nitrate, which likely was obtained from ETs purchased online, according to a law enforcement source.

• (U//FOUO) There have been multiple instances in the past three years in which law enforcement officers discovered ETs stored with other explosives and EPCs when executing search warrants at personal residences.

• (U//FOUO) Since 2008 the FBI ammonium nitrate tripwire initiative has detected at least 18 incidents related to attempts to directly purchase ammonium nitrate, allegedly to manufacture ETs, although no nexus to terrorism was immediately apparent.

(U//FOUO) The FBI assesses with high confidence criminals and extremists remain interested in using improvised ammonium nitrate-based explosives as the main charge in IEDs and are actively seeking new ways to acquire sufficient amounts of ammonium nitrate, based on recent incidents illustrating these acquisition methods. Following the use of ammonium nitrate in the Oklahoma City bombing, the US Government instituted a number of programs designed to increase security awareness of the possible uses of ammonium nitrate-based fertilizers for use in IEDs. As a result, criminals and extremists have adapted and sought other means of acquisition, either through complex pre-operational planning to clandestinely acquire ammonium nitrate-based fertilizers or through purchasing alternative commercial products containing ammonium nitrate.

Greek Journalist fears for his life – Kostas Vaxevanis: “They are searching for me instead of the truth”

The wanted Kostas Vaxevanis talks to “Pandora’s Box Show” about the publication of HOTDOC magazine and the notorious Lagarde list, hours before his arrest, and the attempts to silence the press and the truth.


Petition on Avaaz to “drop all charges against Kostas Vaxevanis”:…

Show your support on Facebook:……

The list has been in the possession of the Greek government since 2010 after being transferred by then French Finance Minister Christine Lagard to her Greek counterpart in order to assist in recouping lost tax revenue. Several other European governments including France, Spain, and Italy have used the information in the database to recover close to EUR 10 Billion (USD 13 Billion) in much needed revenue as they struggle with tough recessions.

All this while the Greece struggles with conditions of harsh economic depression as a result of EU/IMF imposed austerity that has disproportionately struck the middle and working classes. The list includes -among others- well known business people, journalists, doctors, lawyers, and media figures many of who have declared income that does not justify the amount of money in their HSBC accounts.

Cryptome – Boston Bomb Blasts 2 Vivid Non-Commercial

Boston Bomb Blasts 2

Selected from 150 photos by Aaron “tango” Tang via Flicker

Aaron writes:

I was at my office overlooking the boston marathon which is half a block from the finish line when the explosion went off while watching which was a shock.. I ran to grab my camera hoping to catch any leads but here is what i have. Please share if you feel these might lead to what occurred especially the before shots of that area of the 1st bombing.

My observation is that the explosion was in front of the “candy store” or “marathon palace” in a trashcan or something on the far side of the sidewalk near the fence that exploded. Big blast of fire, and smoke, but it all vanished so fast and not much left to see minus lots of shattered glass.

This is a sad day for such a great event. I was amazed how fast the medics and nearby citizens took action to run into the smoke, rip off their shirts to help the wounded.

Please share, post, link this set if you feel these photos might aid in figuring out this tragic event…. especially in the “Before photos” which show lots of faces and perhaps clues.


Reddit discussion of these and other photos:

Previous bomb blast photos:





TOP-SECRET – FBI Bulletin: Los Zetas Recruitment of Non-Traditional Associates in the United States


(U//FOUO) Recent FBI intelligence from multiple FBI HUMINT sources indicates a shift in Los Zetas recruiting methods and reliance on non-traditional associates. Past, accurate FBI reporting indicated Los Zetas previously focused its recruitment on members with prior specialized training, such as ex-military and ex-law enforcement officers, and not on US-based gangs or US persons in order to maintain a highly-disciplined and structured hierarchy. This hierarchy, which resembled a military-style command and control structure, facilitated drug trafficking operations and maintained lines of authority. However, current FBI reporting indicates that Los Zetas is recruiting and relying on non-traditional, non-military trained associates—US-based prison and street gangs and non-Mexican nationals—to perform drug trafficking and support operations in Mexico and in the United States. The FBI judges with high confidence that Los Zetas will continue to increase its recruitment efforts and establish pacts with non-military trained, nontraditional associates to maintain their drug trafficking and support operations, which may increase violence along the Southwest border posing a threat to US national security.

(U//FOUO) Current FBI reporting has indicated an increase of recruitment and contracting of US-Based gangs to conduct daily drug trafficking activities and support operations in the United States.

( U//FOUO) As of October 2010, a corroborated collaborative FBI HUMINT source with excellent access showed that Los Zetas had contracted the Texas Mexican Mafia, a Texas-based prison gang, and tasked them to collect drug debts, carry out hits, and traffic drugs in and through Laredo, Texas.
(U//FOUO) As of September 2010, a corroborated collaborative FBI HUMINT source with excellent access indicated that Los Zetas attempted to recruit US-based members in Houston, Texas, to join Los Zetas’ war against the Gulf Cartel on both sides of the border.
(U//FOUO) A corroborated collaborative FBI HUMINT source with indirect access indicated that as of August 2010, Los Zetas was buying AK-47’s from the Tango Blast Gang, a Houston, Texas-based street gang. The weapons were moved from Houston to Laredo, Texas, and were subsequently smuggled into Mexico.
(U//FOUO) As of April 2010, an established source with excellent access, much of whose reporting has been corroborated over the past ten years, indicated that the McAllen, Texas Los Piojos Drug Trafficking Organization (DTO) procured vehicles for Los Zetas through thefts, carjackings, and auto auctions held in McAllen, Texas. Los Piojos also operates a street gang in Mission, Texas who assisted with the acquisition of vehicles and vehicle parts for Los Zetas, and in some cases those parts were used to build armored vehicles for them.

(U//FOUO) FBI reporting indicates that Los Zetas is also recruiting or contracting US person Mexican nationals to conduct drug trafficking operations in the United States.

(U//FOUO) As of October 2010, a corroborated collaborative FBI HUMINT source with indirect access indicated that US person Javier Medina, a resident of Zapata, Texas, is an alleged Los Zetas recruit. Medina worked for Juan Pedro in Guerrero, Tamaulipas, Mexico. Juan Pedro was allegedly affiliated with the shooting of the US person on the Jet Ski at Falcon Lake near Zapata, Texas.
(U//FOUO) As of September 2010, a corroborated collaborative FBI HUMINT source with excellent access indicated that Los Zetas contracted a US person, identified as Alejandro, to steal vehicles in Laredo, Texas, and transport them to Nuevo Laredo, Tamaulipas, Mexico to use for its operations.
(U//FOUO) As of March 2010, an FBI contact with excellent access whose reporting is limited and whose reliability cannot be determined indicated that Los Zetas contracted US person Alma Delia Martinez to collect smuggling fees from smugglers crossing illegal aliens across the Rio Grande River.

(U//FOUO) The FBI San Antonio judges with high confidence that Los Zetas will continue to increase their recruitment efforts and establish pacts with other Mexico and US-based prison and street gangs, as well as non-Mexican nationals to maintain their drug trafficking and support operations. FBI San Antonio believes the Los Zetas’ shift in recruitment efforts will most likely not increase its membership numbers drastically, as recent reporting has indicated that these new members lack the training and skills to elude GOM law enforcement and military, which result in many Los Zetas casualties or captures.

(U//FOUO) FBI judges with moderate confidence that Los Zetas will likely pose a higher national security threat to the United States, based on their demonstrated capabilities for violence, their recent murders of US citizens, increased kidnappings of US citizens on both sides of the border, and their continued participation in the US drug trade. With the GOM military counter-narcotic operations and turf battles against other DTOs, Los Zetas violence and criminal activity will most likely increase.

(U//FOUO) In order to adequately assess the threat to the United States, FBI San Antonio would need information that indicated larger-scale or multiple plans to attack are being planned. With the recruitment of new members, Los Zetas have lost part of their disciplined command and control structure needed to maintain order within the organization, which is likely to hinder their ability to carry out complex attacks and could increase the likelihood that GOM officials may learn of planned attacks or operations. High-level Los Zetas members with minimal command and control authority have hindered their operations, and caused countless casualties and captures. Furthermore, new members are often undisciplined, which has led to recruits failing to follow orders and has gained the Los Zetas unneeded attention, as evidenced in the Falcon Lake shooting.


TMZ – Britney Spears & David Lucado GET SERIOUS

Britney Spears and her new boyfriend David Lucado took a huge leap in their relationship and you’re not going to believe it… She wore a Virginia Tech shirt! You know, adopting her fella’s sports team… That’s one step closer to pregnancy!

Cryptome unveils Djohar Tsarnaev

Djohar Tsarnaev

A sends:

The media has Dzhokhar Tsarnaev’s name misspelled. I skiptraced him and found his Russian Facebook profile:

Cryptome: This Facebook material has not been verified as authentic.

Djohar Tsarnaev



FEMEN TV : Go Rape Yourself

FEMEN sextremists attacked International Porn Forum (Eropolis)of Le Bourget in Paris.
They interrupted a show staging live porn dolls while screaming “GO RAPE YOURSELF!”.
Mainstream sex industry is allowing millions of user to download each day billions of disgusting images staging women in the most humiliating way as possible to satisfy the beasty lust of patriarchy.

FEMEN places sex industry at the same level as dictatorship systems and religious institutions. Those three machines are part of the same whole which we want to destroy.
FEMEN is calling women to rise up against this pukable industry which is feeding fantasies as rape and woman object, always submitted to men desires. Death to sex bosses, freedom for sex-slaves!

TOP-SECRET-DEA General Principles for Payment of Records Requested via Administrative Subpoenas


Light Armored Reconnaissance Battalion Operations in Afghanistan: Lessons and Observations From 4th Light Armored Reconnaissance Battalion July 2009 – May 2010

25 pages
For Official Use Only
July 26, 2010


(U) Purpose: To inform Deputy Commandants (DCs) Combat Development and Integration (CD&I), Plans, Policies, and Operations (PP&O), Installations and Logistics (I&L) Commanding General (CG), Training and Education Command (TECOM), Director of Intelligence, and others on results of a March 2010 collection effort to document lessons and observations from 4th Light Armored Reconnaissance Battalion (4th LAR).

Bottom Line Up Front:

(U//FOUO) The battalion mobilized one month prior to participating in Enhanced Mojave Viper (EMV). Other than for drill weekends prior to mobilization, this four week period was the only time allotted for pre-deployment training (PTP). While the unit was able to meet all of its requirements, a longer mobilization period should be the goal.

(U//FOUO) During drill weekends, the battalion’s main effort was crew cohesion, conducting gunnery and scout integration and platoon level tactics, focusing on “brilliance of the basics.”

(U//FOUO) EMV was still in the process of converting from Iraq to an Afghanistan focus. It was also oriented around a standard infantry battalion and not an LAR unit.

(U//FOUO) The primary mission of the battalion is combined arms reconnaissance and security missions to shape the battlespace. Many of the operations conducted in Afghanistan were not typical LAR operations.

(U//FOUO) As with other units in Afghanistan, 4th LAR operated in a dispersed and distributed manner, often out of platoon size patrol bases. If such operations continue, the numbers of each vehicle variants may have to be modified to better support them.

(U//FOUO) Fluctuating information on force cap restrictions impacted the mobilization process and the decisions made on the final composition of the unit.

(U//FOUO) The late decision to mobilize the battalion impacted the mobilization process for Navy medical personnel and contributed to the delayed arrival of corpsmen to support the battalion.

(U//FOUO) The lack of replacements for casualties in country increased what was already a shortage of light armored vehicle (LAV) crewman for some of the companies.

(U//FOUO) Marine Corps Base (MCB), Camp Pendleton is a particularly well-suited intermediate location (ILOC) site for mobilizing reserve units, due to its proximity to Marine Corps Air Ground Combat Center, 29 Palms and EMV, although it may require more capacity and resources to support multiple units.

(U//FOUO) Some Marines continue to outfit themselves with personally procured equipment and gear.

(U//FOUO) While the upgraded LAV, the A2 variant, generally received praise as an overall improvement, many considered it underpowered with the Ballistic Protection Upgrade Package (BPUP) armor additions mounted.


(U//FOUO) Each platoon should have at least two Marines trained to operate UAVs.

(U//FOUO) Wasp performed well; a very quiet system, although they were susceptible to damage and replacements were not available. As the system was small and man portable, it extended a level of intelligence, surveillance and reconnaissance (ISR) and force protection to patrol bases and other areas where systems such as G-BOSS were not available.

(U//FOUO) The UAVs used by the unit generally received praise, but both Scan Eagle and Raven were cited as having a noise signature, which can have its own use as a deterrent and force protection, but limits some of their usefulness as a collection platform. Additionally, subordinate units, especially those operating from smaller COPs/FOBs, need to have access to overhead imagery and video, as well an imagery analyst to make it more useful.

(U//FOUO) Scan Eagle was very ineffective in trying to queue off other data collection methods due to its slow speed. LAR’s large AO also impacted the use of Scan Eagle because of range issues.

Afghan Border Police

(U//FOUO) LAR worked primarily with Afghan Border Police (ABP) vice Afghan National Army (ANA) or other Afghan units.

ABP were generally poorly trained, poorly equipped, poorly sustained.
Platoon commanders should be prepared to mentor groups of up to 60 ABP at a time, providing much guidance, along with communications and logistical support.
Some ABP speak Pashto, others speak Dari. They can be a good source of language training.
ABP can be helpful for doing things Americans cannot do under rules of engagement (ROE), such as night searches or home searches.
An ABP unit attached to Company C had 60 men and rated 10 Ford Ranger vehicles, but only had 5, and 3 were operable.
Be prepared to supply ABP with radios and other gear. Motorcycles confiscated from enemy forces were given to ABP.
ABP must be carefully supervised as they had a tendency to steal from the local population.
ABP are good at catching people who are fleeing. They wore little body armor, and their vehicles, Ford Rangers, were very light and performed well in the terrain.


(U//FOUO) Marines who dealt with Biometric Automated Toolset (BAT) or Handheld Interagency Identity Detection Equipment (HIIDE) said they were extremely unreliable.

Company C reported one of six HIIDE units working.
Company B reported seven HIIDE units stopped working during deployment.
The most common problem was a failure to turn on.
Camera on BAT was very problematic due to external moving lens elements that jam with dust and sand.
Often had to cannibalize multiple BAT systems to make one work.
Iris scanning was very difficult to impossible in bright sun.
Difficult to obtain parts such as extra cables, chargers, etc.

(U//FOUO) Opinion of the battalion leadership was mixed on the value of biometrics:


Some enemy forces captured through biometrics.
Two suspected insurgents posing as wood cutters were identified through biometrics on a “rat line” interdiction.
Used effectively on the larger bases for force protection but the system was still slow.


A lot of false positives but always from fingerprint comparison, not from iris scans.
Even when working properly, the system was too slow, at times requiring two hours to enroll just six people.
The system became more useful as more people were enrolled, but it also slowed down.
The process of loading data from the HIIDE to BAT, and BAT data uploaded and downloaded over SIPR, was disruptive of other computer operations.

Civil Affairs

(U//FOUO) Commander‟s Emergency Response Program (CERP) funds rules and regulations can be very confusing and bureaucratic to use:

Up to $5000 projects are easy and the paperwork is simple.
Process keeps changing. If changes must be made, time them with turnover.
Onerous levels of detail made CERP ineffective for larger projects.

(U//FOUO) The amount of money spent is not an appropriate measure of success. It is simply a means to develop relationships.

(U//FOUO) The Department of State stabilization advisor had more flexibility in regards to spending so the battalion was able to work with him and combine monies to work on larger projects. Also, those projects that only required Marine expeditionary brigade (MEB) level concurrence, generally up to $500,000, were easier to receive approval.

(U//FOUO) Projects, whether bridges, roads, schools, or even playing soccer with local children were tactically important, because they often led to tips on IEDs and enemy forces.

(U//FOUO) The civil affairs group (CAG) detachment, with only four personnel, was undermanned; a team of at least eight, if not ten, was recommended. More team members would allow for decentralization and the ability to support separate COPs and patrol bases.

(U//FOUO) Civil affair projects were difficult to do in some areas. Local leaders would often be roadblocks and would only be relatively tolerant if the project were to benefit them directly.