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The first manual, “KUBARK Counterintelligence Interrogation”, dated July 1963, is the source of much of the material in the second manual. KUBARK was a U.S. Central Intelligence Agencycryptonym for the CIA itself. The cryptonym KUBARK appears in the title of a 1963 CIA document KUBARK Counterintelligence Interrogation which describes interrogation techniques, including, among other things, “coercive counterintelligence interrogation of resistant sources”. This is the oldest manual, and describes the use of abusive techniques, as exemplified by two references to the use of electric shock, in addition to use of threats and fear, sensory deprivation, and isolation.