Murdered Journalists had Evidence against Putin – Insider Video

 

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The Secret List of Transgender, Gay and Lesbian Sport Stars unveiled

Basketball player Jason Collins

Volleyball player J. P. Calderon

Tennis player Billie Jean King

Track and field athlete Andreas Krieger

Tennis player Hana Mandlíková

Swimmer Dominik Koll

Ice hockey player Charline Labonté

Handball player Katja Nyberg

Alpine skier Anja Pärson

American football player Michael Sam

Rugby player Gareth Thomas

Swimmer Ian Thorpe

Rugby player Louisa Wall

Professional wrestler Darren Young

Name Lifetime[1] Nationality Sport Sexual Orientation and/or Gender Identity [2]
Brian Anderson b. 1976  American Skateboarding Gay[3]
Helena Åberg b. 1971  Swedish Swimming Lesbian[4]
Graham Ackerman b. 1983  American Gymnastics Gay[5]
Nicola Adams b. 1982  English Boxing Bisexual[6]
Marilyn Agliotti b. 1979  Dutch Field hockey Lesbian[7]
Jenny Allard b. ?  American Softball Lesbian[8]
Kye Allums b. 1989  American Basketball Transgender[9]
John Amaechi b. 1970  English Basketball Gay[10]
Eric Anderson b. 1968  American Coach Gay[11]
Rhyian Anderson-Morley b. 1990  Australian Australian rules football Gay[12]
Nadine Angerer b. 1978  German Association football Bisexual[13]
Alyson Annan b. 1973  Australian Field hockey Lesbian[14]
Jen Armbruster b. 1975  American Goalball [15]
Rebekka Armstrong b. 1967  American Professional bodybuilding Bisexual[16]
Judith Arndt b. 1976  German Cycling Lesbian[17]
Seimone Augustus b. 1984  American Basketball Lesbian[18]
Ramona Bachmann b. 1990   Swiss Association football Lesbian[19]
Mianne Bagger b. 1966  Danish Golf Transgender[20]
Clare Balding b. 1971  English Jockey Lesbian[21]
Jason Ball b. 1988  Australian Australian rules football Gay[22]
Shawnacy Barber b. 1994  Canadian Track and field Gay[23]
Nicole Bass-Fuchs 1964–2017  American Professional bodybuilding Bisexual[24]
Betty Baxter b. 1952  Canadian Volleyball Lesbian[25]
Billy Bean b. 1964  American Baseball Gay[26]
Shelley Beattie 1967–2008  American Professional bodybuilding Bisexual[27]
Mack Beggs b. 1999  American Wrestling Transgender[28]
Kajsa Bergqvist b. 1976  Swedish Track and field Bisexual[29]
Thomas Berling b. 1979  Norwegian Association football Gay[30]
Mark Bingham 1970–2001  American Rugby Gay[31]
Sue Bird b. 1980  American Basketball Lesbian[32]
Alex Blackwell b. 1983  Australian Cricket Lesbian[33][34]
John Blankenstein 1949–2006  Dutch Association football Gay[35]
Brian Boitano b. 1963  American Figure skating Gay[36]
Tom Bosworth b. 1990  British Race walker Gay[37]
Yvette Bova b. 1962  American Professional bodybuilding Bisexual[38]
Brittany Bowe b. 1988  American Speed skater Lesbian[39]
Sabine Braun b. 1965  German Track and field Lesbian[40]
Ashleigh Brazill b. 1989  Australian Netball Lesbian[41]
Linda Bresonik b. 1983  German Association football Lesbian[42]
Belle Brockhoff b. 1993  Australian Snowboard Lesbian[43]
Giorgia Bronzini b. 1983  Italian Cycling Lesbian[44]
Harrison Browne b. 1993  Canadian Ice hockey Transgender[45]
Chantal de Bruijn b. 1976  Dutch Field hockey Lesbian[46]
Steve Buckley b. 1956  American Journalist Gay[47]
Karin Büttner-Janz b. 1952  German Gymnast Lesbian[48]
Anastasia Bucsis b. 1989  Canadian Speed skating Lesbian[49]
Brendan Burke 1988–2010  American Ice hockey Gay[50]
Glenn Burke 1952–1995  American Baseball Gay[51]
Kris Burley b. 1974  Canadian Gymnast Gay[52]
Balian Buschbaum b. 1980  German Track and field Transgender[53]
Ivan Bussens 1960–2007  English Water polo Gay[54]
Jeffrey Buttle b. 1982  Canadian Figure skating Gay[55]
Latasha Byears b. 1973  American Basketball Lesbian[56]
Caitlin Cahow b. 1985  American Ice hockey Lesbian[57]
J. P. Calderon b. 1975  American Volleyball Gay[58]
Liz Carmouche b. 1984  American MMA Lesbian[59]
Betty Carstairs 1900–1993  English Motor racing Lesbian[60]
Isadora Cerullo b. 1991  American
 Brazilian
Rugby Lesbian[61]
Parinya Charoenphol b. 1981  Thai Boxing Transgender[62]
Julie Chu b.1982  American Ice hockey [63]
Laura Clemesha b. 1992  Australian Netball Lesbian[64]
Jason Collins b. 1978  American Basketball Gay[65]
Sean Conroy b. 1992  American Baseball Gay[66]
Natalie Cook b. 1975  Australian Beach volleyball Lesbian[67]
Rose Cossar b. 1991  Canadian Gymnastics Lesbian[68]
Roberta Cowell 1918–2011  British Motor racing Transgender[69]
Gottfried von Cramm 1909–1976  German Tennis Bisexual[70]
Scott Cranham b. 1954  Canadian Diver Gay[71]
Toller Cranston 1949–2015  Canadian Figure skating Bisexual[72]
Lisa Cross b. 1978  English Professional bodybuilding Bisexual[73]
Orlando Cruz b. 1981  Puerto Rican Boxing Gay[74]
John Curry 1949–1994  English Figure skating Gay[75]
Donal Óg Cusack b. 1977  Irish Hurling Gay[76]
Lisa Dahlkvist b. 1987  Swedish Association football Lesbian[77]
Tom Daley b. 1994  British Diving Gay[78]
Steven Davies b. 1986  English Cricket Gay[79]
Liam Davis b. 1990  English Association football Gay[80]
Wade Davis b. 1977  American American football Gay[81]
Casey Dellacqua b. 1985  Australian Tennis Lesbian[82]
Elena Delle Donne b. 1989  American Basketball Lesbian[83]
David Denson b. 1995  American Baseball Gay[84]
Sonya Deville b. 1993  American Professional wrestling Lesbian[85]
Chris Dickerson b. 1939  American Professional bodybuilding Gay[86]
Carlien Dirkse van den Heuvel b. 1987  Dutch Field hockey Lesbian[87]
Michael Dos Santos b. 1983  Brazilian Volleyball Gay[88]
Robert Dover b. 1956  American Equestrian Gay[89]
Nancy Drolet b. 1973  Canadian Ice hockey Lesbian[90]
Michelle Duff b. 1939  Canadian Motor racing Transgender[91]
Christian Duffy b. 1961  American Professional bodybuilding Bisexual[92]
Michelle Dumaresq b. 1971  Canadian Mountain biking Transgender[93]
Abby Dunkin b. 1995  American Wheelchair basketball Lesbian[94]
Simon Dunn b. 1987  Australian Bobsled Gay[95]
Imke Duplitzer b. 1975  German Fencing Lesbian[96]
Pascal Erlachner b.1980   Swiss Association Footballreferee Gay[97]
Matt Evers b. 1976  American Figure skating Gay[98]
Emilia Fahlin b. 1988  Swedish Cycling Lesbian[44]
Janelly Farías b. 1990  Mexican Association football Lesbian[99]
Justin Fashanu 1961–1998  English Association football Gay[100]
Freda du Faur 1882–1935  Australian Mountaineering Lesbian[101]
John Fennell b. 1995  Canadian Luge Gay[102]
Gigi Fernández b. 1964  Puerto Rican Tennis Lesbian[103]
Nilla Fischer b. 1984  Swedish Association football Lesbian[104]
Amini Fonua b. 1989  Tongan
 New Zealander
Swimming Gay[105]
Mark Foster b. 1970  English Swimming Gay[106]
Fallon Fox b. 1975  American MMA Transgender[107]
Larissa Franca b. 1982  Brazilian Beach volleyball Lesbian[108]
Travon Free b. 1984/1985  American Basketball Bisexual[109]
Tadd Fujikawa b. 1991  American Golf Gay[110]
Tracy Gahan b. 1980  American Basketball Lesbian[111]
Edward Gal b. 1970  Dutch Equestrian Gay[112]
Rudy Galindo b. 1969  American Figure skating Gay[113]
Vicky Galindo b. 1983  American Softball Bisexual[114]
Ed Gallagher 1958–2005  American American football Gay[115]
Melanie Garside-Wight b. 1979  English Association football Lesbian[116]
Terry Garvin 1937-1998  Canadian Professional wrestling Gay[117]
Jane Geddes b. 1960  American Golf Lesbian[118]
Alan Gendreau b. 1989  American American football Gay[119]
Derrick Gordon b. 1991  American Basketball Gay[120]
Inka Grings b. 1978  German Association football Bisexual[121]
Bobby Goldsmith 1946–1983  Australian Swimming Gay[122]
Andrew Goldstein b. 1983  American Lacrosse Gay[123]
LZ Granderson b. 1972  American Journalist Gay[124]
Emile Griffith 1938–2013  American Boxing Bisexual[125]
Brittney Griner b. 1990  American Basketball Lesbian[126]
Joan Guetschow b. 1966  American Biathlon Lesbian[127]
Peter Häggström b. 1976  Swedish Track and field Gay[128]
Matthew Hall b. 1970  Canadian Figure skating Gay[129]
Gro Hammerseng b. 1980  Norwegian Handball Lesbian[130]
Alan Hansford b. 1968  English Cricket Gay[131]
Kwame Harris b. 1982  American American football Gay[132]
Todd Harrity b. 1990  American Squash Gay[133][134]
Kyle Hawkins b. 1970  American Lacrosse Gay[135]
Bruce Hayes b. 1963  American Swimming Gay[136]
Sandra Haynie b. 1943  American Golf Lesbian[137]
Hurley Haywood b. 1948  American Motor racing Gay[138]
Jayna Hefford b. 1977  Canadian Ice hockey Lesbian[139]
Mathew Helm b. 1980  Australian Diving Gay[140]
Jorik Hendrickx b. 1992  Belgian Figure skating Gay[141]
Bianca Henninger b. 1990  Mexican Association football Lesbian[142]
Isabell Herlovsen b. 1988  Norwegian Association football Lesbian[143]
Carl Hester b. 1967  British Equestrian Gay[144]
Keegan Hirst b. 1988  British Rugby Gay[145]
Thomas Hitzlsperger b. 1982  German Association football Gay[146]
Edel Therese Høiseth b. 1966  Norwegian Speed skating Lesbian[147]
Ursula Holl b. 1982  German Association football Lesbian[148]
Erika Holst b. 1979  Swedish Ice hockey Lesbian[149]
Laurel Hubbard b. 1978  New Zealander Weightlifting Transgender[150]
Karen Hultzer b. 1965  South African Archery Lesbian[151]
Mia Hundvin b. 1977  Norwegian Handball Bisexual[152]
Anton Hysén b. 1990  Swedish Association football Gay[153]
Daniela Iraschko-Stolz b. 1983  Austrian Ski jumper Lesbian[154]
George Ives 1867–1950  English Cricket Gay[155][156]
Helen Jacobs 1908–1997  American Tennis Lesbian[157]
Colin Jackson b. 1967  Welsh Hurdling Gay[158]
Angela James b. 1964  Canadian Ice hockey Lesbian[159]
Patrick Jeffrey b. 1965  American Diving Gay[160]
Brianne Jenner b.1991  Canadian Ice hockey Lesbian[161]
Dorte Dalum Jensen b. 1978  Danish Association football Lesbian[162]
Barbara Jezeršek b. 1986  Slovenian Cross-country skiing Lesbian[163]
Xu Jingsen b. ?  Chinese Surfing Gay[164]
Glory Johnson b. 1990  American Basketball Lesbian[165]
Gus Johnston b. 1979  Australian Field hockey Gay[166]
Rosie Jones b. 1959  American Golf Lesbian[167]
Steffi Jones b. 1972  American
 German
Association football Lesbian[168]
Orlando Jordan b. 1974  American Professional wrestling Bisexual[169]
Natasha Kai b. 1983  American Association football Lesbian[96]
Chris Kanyon 1970–2010  American Professional wrestling Gay[170]
Maud Kaptheijns b. 1994  Dutch Cyclocross Lesbian[171]
Peter Karlsson 1966–1995  Swedish Ice hockey Gay[172]
Kathleen Kauth b. 1979  American Ice hockey Lesbian[173]
Johan Kenkhuis b. 1980  Dutch Swimming Gay[174]
Gus Kenworthy b. 1991  American Freestyle skiing Gay[175]
Isabel Kerschowski b. 1988  German Association football Lesbian[176]
Sanne van Kerkhof b. 1987  Dutch Speed skating Lesbian[177]
Lotte Kiærskou b. 1975  Danish Handball Lesbian[178]
Billie Jean King b. 1943  American Tennis Lesbian[179]
Sandra Kirby b. 1949  Canadian Rowing Lesbian[180]
Stine Brun Kjeldaas b. 1975  Norwegian Snowboard Lesbian[181]
Ilana Kloss b. 1956  American Tennis Lesbian[182]
Dominik Koll b. 1984  Austrian Swimming Gay[183]
David Kopay b. 1942  American American football Gay[184]
Daniel Kowalski b. 1975  Australian Swimming Gay[185]
Katja Kraus b. 1970  German Association football Lesbian[186]
Andreas Krieger b. 1966  German Track and field Transgender[187]
Janae Marie Kroc b. 1972  American Powerlifting Transgenderbisexual[188]
Kim Kulig b. 1990  German Association football Lesbian[189]
Charline Labonté b. 1982  Canadian Ice hockey Lesbian[190]
Alexandra Lacrabère b. 1987  French Handball Lesbian[191]
Kim Lammers b. 1981  Dutch Field hockey Lesbian[192]
Jessica Landström b. 1984  Swedish Association football Lesbian[193]
Lauren Lappin b. 1984  American Softball Lesbian[194]
Mark Leduc 1962–2009  Canadian Boxing Gay[195]
Mapi León b. 1995  Spanish Association football Lesbian[196]
Hedvig Lindahl b. 1983  Swedish Association football Lesbian[197]
Ylva Lindberg b. 1976  Swedish Ice hockey Lesbian[149]
Lori Lindsey b. 1980  American Association football Lesbian[198]
Matthew Lister b. 1992  British Canoeing Gay[199]
Ari-Pekka Liukkonen b. 1989  Finnish Swimming Gay[200]
Joanna Lohman b. 1982  American Association football Lesbian[201]
Lella Lombardi 1941-1992  Italian Motor Racing Lesbian[202]
Greg Louganis b. 1960  American Diving Gay[203]
Cheryl Maas b. 1984  Dutch Snowboard Lesbian[181]
Yusaf Mack b. 1980  American Boxing Gay[204]
Liliane Maestrini b. 1987  Brazilian Beach volleyball Lesbian[108]
Hana Mandlíková b. 1962  Czech Australian Tennis Lesbian[205]
Robbie Manson b. 1989  New Zealand Rowing Gay[206]
Brian Marshall b. 1965  Canadian High jump Gay[207]
Christy Martin b. 1968  American Boxing Lesbian[208]
Amélie Mauresmo b. 1979  French Tennis Lesbian[209]
Collin Martin b. 1994  American Association football Gay[210]
Stephany Mayor b. 1991  Mexican Association football Bisexual[211]
Marnie McBean b. 1968  Canadian Rowing Lesbian[212]
Robert McCall 1958–1991  Canadian Figure skating Gay[213]
Ray McDonald 1944–1993  American American football Gay[214]
Lindsy McLean b. 1938  American American football Gay[215]
Erin McLeod b. 1983  Canadian Association football Lesbian[216]
Linda Medalen b. 1965  Norwegian Association football Lesbian[217]
Simona Meiler b. 1989   Swiss Snowboard Lesbian[218]
Conner Mertens b. 1994/1995  American American football Bisexual[219]
Kim Meylemans b. 1996  Belgian Skeleton Lesbian[220][221]
Harriet Metcalf b. 1958  American Rowing Lesbian[222]
Theresa Michalak b. 1992  German Swimming Lesbian[223]
Linda Mienzer b. 1965  Bermudian Cricket Lesbian[224]
Hans Peter Minderhoud b. 1973  Dutch Equestrian Gay[112]
Matthew Mitcham b. 1988  Australian Diving Gay[225]
Eric Mitchell b. 1992  Canadian Ski jumping Gay[226]
Chris Morgan b. 1973  English Powerlifting Gay[227]
Jim Morris 1936–2016  American Professional bodybuilding Gay[228]
Chris Mosier b. 1980  American Triathlete Transgender[229]
Valerie Mulcahy b. 1983  Irish Gaelic football Lesbian[230]
Nadine Müller b. 1985  German Discus throwing Lesbian[231]
Nina Müller b. 1980  German Handball Lesbian[232]
Susann Müller b. 1988  German Handball Lesbian[233]
Martina Navratilova b. 1956  Czech
 American
Tennis Lesbian[234]
Ondrej Nepela 1951–1989  Slovakian Figure skating Gay[72]
Robert Newton b. 1981  English Track and field Gay[235]
Bente Nordby b. 1974  Norwegian Association football Lesbian[162]
Scott Norton b. 1982  American Bowling Gay[236]
Jana Novotná b. 1968  Czech Tennis Lesbian
Diana Nyad b. 1949  American Swimming Lesbian[237]
Katja Nyberg b. 1979  Swedish Handball Lesbian[238]
Graeme Obree b. 1965  Scottish Cycling Gay[239]
Ryan O’Callaghan b. 1983  American American football Gay[240]
Ryan O’Meara b. 1984  American Ice dancing Gay[241]
Brian Orser b. 1961  Canadian Figure skating Gay[242]
Caroline Ouellette b.1979  Canadian Ice hockey [243]
Nigel Owens b. 1971  Welsh Rugby referee Gay[244]
Robert Páez b. 1994  Venezuelan Diving Gay[245]
Šárka Pančochová b. 1990  Czech Snowboard Lesbian[246]
Bob Paris b. 1959  Canadian
 American
Professional bodybuilding Gay[247]
Sandy Parker b. 1952  Canadian Professional wrestling Lesbian[248]
Lily Parr 1905–1978  English Association football Lesbian[249]
Anja Pärson b. 1981  Swedish Downhill skiing Lesbian[250]
Pat Patterson b. 1941  Canadian Professional wrestling Gay[251]
Maartje Paumen b. 1985  Dutch Field hockey Lesbian[87]
Lee Pearson b. 1974  English Equestrian Gay[252]
Otto Peltzer 1900–1970  German Track and field Gay[253]
Mike Penner 1957–2009  American Journalist Transgender[254]
Beate Peters b. 1959  German Track and field Lesbian[40]
Erin Phillips b. 1985  Australian BasketballAustralian rules football Lesbian[111]
David Pichler b. 1968  American Diving Gay[255]
Fernanda Pinilla b. 1993  Chilean Association football Lesbian[256]
Aslie Pitter b. 1960  English Association football Gay[257]
Brian Pockar 1959–1992  Canadian Figure skating Gay[213]
Hope Powell b. 1966  English Association football Lesbian[258]
Lauren Powers b. 1961  American Professional bodybuilding Bisexual[259]
Eric Radford b. 1985  Canadian Figure skating Gay[260]
Megan Rapinoe b. 1985  American Association football Lesbian[261]
Lisa Raymond b. 1973  American Tennis Lesbian[262]
Stephen Rhodes b. 1984  American Motor racing Gay[263]
Renée Richards b. 1934  American Tennis Transgender[264]
Helen Richardson-Walsh b. 1981  British Field hockey Lesbian[46]
Kate Richardson-Walsh b. 1980  British Field hockey Lesbian[46]
Adam Rippon b. 1989  American Figure skating Gay[265]
Lucia Rijker b. 1967  Dutch Kickboxing Bisexual[266]
Ian Roberts b. 1965  Australian Rugby league Gay[267]
Ronald Robertson 1937–2000  American Figure skating Gay[268]
Robbie Rogers b. 1987  American Association football Gay[269]
Yulimar Rojas b. 1995  Venezuelan Track and field Lesbian[270]
Petra Rossner b. 1966  German Cycling Lesbian[17]
Olivier Rouyer b. 1955  French Association football Gay[271]
Matthew Rush b. 1972  American Professional bodybuilding Gay[272]
Jaiyah Saelua b. 1988  American Samoan Association football Transgender[273]
Angela Salvagno b. 1976  American Professional bodybuilding Bisexual[274]
Michael Sam b. 1990  American American football Gay[275]
Victoria Sandell Svensson b. 1977  Swedish Association football Lesbian[276]
Lianne Sanderson b. 1988  English Association football Lesbian[201]
Chip Sarafin b. ?  American American football Gay[277]
Christopher Saynt b. 1993  Scottish Professional wrestling Gay[278][279]
Erik Schinegger b. 1948  Austrian Downhill skiing Transgender[280]
Dale Scott b. 1959  American Baseball Gay[281]
Caroline Seger b. 1985  Swedish Association football Lesbian[282]
Caster Semenya b. 1991  South African Athletics Lesbian[283]
Jack Sexsmith b. 1992  English Professional wrestling Pansexual[284][285]
Patty Sheehan b. 1956  American Golf Lesbian[286]
Will Sheridan b. 1985  American Basketball Gay[287]
Bianca Sierra b. 1992  Mexican Association football Bisexual[211]
Jackie Silva b. 1962  Brazilian Beach volleyball Lesbian[288]
Eudy Simelane 1977–2008  South African Association football Lesbian[289]
Roy Simmons 1956–2014  American American football Gay[290]
Brian Sims b. 1978  American American football Gay[291]
Blake Skjellerup b. 1985  New Zealander Speed skating Gay[292]
Vibeke Skofterud b. 1980  Norwegian Cross country skiing Bisexual[152]
Rikke Skov b. 1980  Danish Handball Lesbian[293]
Jerry Smith 1943–1986  American American football Bisexual[294]
Judy Sowinski 1940–2011  American Roller derby Lesbian[295]
Muffin Spencer-Devlin b. 1953  American Golf Lesbian[234]
Helen Stephens 1918–1994  American Track and field Lesbian[296]
Casey Stoney b. 1982  English Association football Lesbian[297]
Beth Storry b. 1978  British Field hockey Lesbian[46]
Martina Strutz b. 1981  German Track and field Lesbian[298]
Rennae Stubbs b. 1971  Australian Tennis Lesbian[262]
Tricia Stumpf b. 1970  American Skeleton Lesbian[299]
Pia Sundhage b. 1960  Swedish Association football Lesbian[300]
Stacy Sykora b. 1977  American Volleyball Lesbian[301]
Blyth Tait b. 1961  New Zealander Equestrian Gay[302]
Connor Taras b. ?  Canadian Kayak Gay[303]
Diana Taurasi b. 1982  American Basketball Lesbian[304]
Penny Taylor b. 1981  Australian Basketball Lesbian[304]
David Testo b. 1981  American Association football Gay[305]
Ina-Yoko Teutenberg b. 1974  German Cycling Lesbian[306]
Mark Tewksbury b. 1968  Canadian Swimming Gay[222]
Carole Thate b. 1971  Dutch Field hockey Lesbian[14]
Gareth Thomas b. 1974  Welsh Rugby Gay[307]
Ian Thorpe b. 1982  Australian Swimming Gay[308]
Bill Tilden 1893–1953  American Tennis Gay[309]
Brian Vahaly b. 1979  American Tennis Gay[310]
Ted Tinling 1910–1990  English Tennis Gay[311]
Emma Trott b. 1989  British Cycling Lesbian[312]
Esera Tuaolo b. 1968  American American football Gay[313]
Marcus Urban b. 1971  German Association football Gay[314]
Sarah Vaillancourt b. 1985  Canadian Ice hockey Lesbian[152]
Michele Van Gorp b. 1977  American Basketball Lesbian[315]
Dan Veatch b. 1965  American Swimming Gay[316]
Sophie Vercruyssen b. 1992  Belgian Bobsleigh Lesbian[317]
Laura Verdonschot b. 1996  Belgian Cyclocross Lesbian[171]
Mike Verschuur b. 1987  Dutch Motor racing Gay[318]
Linda Villumsen b. 1985  New Zealander Cycling Lesbian[312]
Lisa-Marie Vizaniari b. 1971  Australian Track and fieldboxing Lesbian[319]
Chris Voth b. 1990  Canadian Indoor volleyball Gay[320]
Tom Waddell 1937–1987  American Decathlon; creator of the Gay Games Gay[321]
Kira Walkenhorst b. 1990  German Beach volleyball Lesbian[322]
Jackie Walker 1950—2002  American American football Gay[323]
Louisa Wall b. 1972  New Zealander Rugby Lesbian[324]
Ji Wallace b. 1977  Australian Gymnastics Gay[325]
Sarah Walsh b. 1983  Australian Association football Lesbian[326]
Abby Wambach b. 1980  American Association football Lesbian[327]
Jeffrey Wammes b. 1987  Dutch Gymnastics Gay[328]
Ann Wauters b. 1980  Belgian Basketball Lesbian[329]
Saskia Webber b. 1971  American Association football Lesbian[330]
Johnny Weir b. 1984  American Figure skating Gay[331]
Rick Welts b. 1953  American Basketballexecutive Gay[332]
Peter Wherrett 1936–2009  Australian Motor racing Transgender[333]
Diane Whipple 1968–2001  American Lacrosse Lesbian[334]
Sue Wicks b. 1966  American Basketball Lesbian[335]
Marieke Wijsman b. 1975  Dutch Speed skating Lesbian[336]
Marlon Williams b. 1988  American American football Bisexual[337]
David Wilson b. 1966  Canadian Figure skating Gay[338]
Keelin Winters b. 1988  American Association football Lesbian[339]
Paul Wirtz 1958–2006  Canadian Figure skating Gay[260]
Chris Witty b. 1975  American Speed skating Lesbian[306]
Andrea Worrall b. 1977  Welsh Association football Lesbian[340]
Ireen Wüst b. 1986  Dutch Speed skating Bisexual[152][341]
Alissa Wykes b. 1967  American American football Lesbian[342]
Darren Young b. 1983  American Professional wrestling Gay[343]
Sharnee Zoll-Norman b. 1986  American Basketball Lesbian [344]

See also

References

  1. Jump up^ Entries with no sourced year of birth available are marked with a “?”.
  2. Jump up^ All entries contain a reliably sourced reference. Entries may also contain a letter indicating Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and/or Transgender.
  3. Jump up^ Dougherty, Conor (2016-09-28). “Brian Anderson, Skateboarding Star, Comes Out as Gay”The New York TimesISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 2017-10-01.
  4. Jump up^ Simmaren en av de första att ”komma ut” i Sverige
  5. Jump up^ Zeigler Jr., Cyd (5 April 2011). “A Gay Gymnast is Champion Again. Graham Ackerman wins back-to-back national championships”Outsports. Archived from the original on 6 January 2012. Retrieved 4 January 2012.
  6. Jump up^ “UK sport stars top 2012 pink list”Pink News. 4 November 2012.
  7. Jump up^ “Algemeen: Marilyn Agliotti: ‘Word je eigen heldZij aan Zij (in Dutch). 14 March 2011. Retrieved 7 January 2012.
  8. Jump up^ Buzinski, Jim (2 March 2001). “The importance of being out”Outsports. Archived from the original on 6 January 2012. Retrieved 4 January 2012.
  9. Jump up^ Brady, Erik (3 November 2011). “Transgender male Kye Allums on the women’s team at GW”USAToday. Retrieved 7 January 2012.
  10. Jump up^ Whittell, Ian (7 February 2007). “I’m gay, says British basketball star: John Amaechi is first male basketball player to come out in US”The Times. London. Retrieved 23 May 2007.
  11. Jump up^ Paul, Newberry (11 February 2009). “Mixed Signals For Gay Athletes”CBS News. Retrieved 7 January 2012.
  12. Jump up^ “I’m gay and I play footy. What’s the big deal?”. Archived from the original on 2014-09-04. Retrieved 21 September 2014.
  13. Jump up^ “Angerer bekennt sich zu Männern und Frauen”Die Zeit (in German). 2 December 2010. Retrieved 11 January 2012.
  14. Jump up to:a b Hannan, Liz (1 July 2007). “Divided in sport, united in love”The Sunday Age. Retrieved 4 January 2012.
  15. Jump up^ https://www.outsports.com/2016/9/13/12908366/medals-paralympics-rio-lgbt-athletes
  16. Jump up^ Rebekka Armstrong
  17. Jump up to:a b “German cyclist Arndt livid over exclusion of lesbian lover”ABC News (Australia). 16 August 2004. Retrieved 4 January 2012.
  18. Jump up^ Katz, Michael (October 15, 2012). “Seimone Augustus, WNBA star, speaks out for same-sex marriage in Minnesota”USA Today. Retrieved August 12, 2016.
  19. Jump up^ “Schweizer Fußball-Star: Das ist meine hübsche Freundin Camille”Focus (in German). 14 June 2015.
  20. Jump up^ Bagger, Mianne (2 October 2009). “About Mianne Bagger”. Retrieved 4 January 2012.
  21. Jump up^ France, Louise (9 December 2006). “One year of being Mr and Mr”The Guardian. Retrieved 7 January 2012.
  22. Jump up^ “Gay footballer calls for AFL ‘pride round. 10 September 2012. Retrieved 20 August2014.
  23. Jump up^ “World champion and Olympian Shawn Barber comes out as ‘gay and proud. 24 April 2017. Retrieved 26 April 2017.
  24. Jump up^ Nicole Bass ‘Might Be’ Bisexual
  25. Jump up^ Hargreaves, Jennifer (2000). Heroines of sport: the politics of difference and identity. Psychology Press. p. 140. ISBN 0-415-22849-2.
  26. Jump up^ Bean, Billy (12 July 2003). “Billy Bean”. Retrieved 4 January 2012.
  27. Jump up^ Shelley Beattie.docx – Wiki Space
  28. Jump up^ “Transgender wrestler: Negativity won’t faze me”ESPN.com. Retrieved 2017-03-07.
  29. Jump up^ Roström-Andersson, Sofia (20 December 2011). “Kajsa Bergqvist kommer ut”Aftonbladet (in Swedish). Retrieved 7 January 2012.
  30. Jump up^ Hansen, Asle (28 April 2001). “Homohetsen fikk Thomas til å legge opp”Dagbladet (in Norwegian). Archived from the original on 6 June 2009. Retrieved 4 January 2012.
  31. Jump up^ “Mark Bingham”The Advocate. 23 October 2001. p. 45. Retrieved 7 January 2012.
  32. Jump up^ http://www.espn.com/espnw/feature/20088416/wnba-all-star-sue-bird-ready-let-in
  33. Jump up^ Cricket Australia Stumped by Homophobia. And Sexism
  34. Jump up^ Sportswomen shattering the stereotypes around sexuality
  35. Jump up^ Kuhn, Gabriel (2011). Football Vs. the State: Tackling Football and Radical Politics. PM Press. p. 99. ISBN 1-60486-053-7. Retrieved 7 January 2012.
  36. Jump up^ Brian Boitano announces he’s gay before trip to Sochi, by Christine Brennan, at USA Today; published December 19, 2013. Retrieved 20 December 2013.
  37. Jump up^ BBC:Tom Bosworth: British Olympics hopeful comes out as gay
  38. Jump up^ Yvette’s Story
  39. Jump up^ Helden:bowe & kamminga gelukkig liefde
  40. Jump up to:a b Harms, Carsten (20 July 1999). “Alter Siegeswille mit neuen Trainern” (in German). Die Welt. Retrieved 7 January 2012.
  41. Jump up^ Delahunty, Erin (2016-02-01). “Netballer Ashleigh Brazill’s civil union: my sexuality has never been an issue”The GuardianISSN 0261-3077. Retrieved 2017-05-12.
  42. Jump up^ Emma.de: Anpfiff für Männer, Abseits für Frauen (German)
  43. Jump up^ Hutt, John (22 August 2013). “Australian Olympic Hopeful Belle Brockhoff Comes Out Ahead Of Sochi 2014”Out Magazine. Retrieved 27 August 2013.
  44. Jump up to:a b Bronzini, Giorgia (2016). “Bronzini & Fahlin in Rio: “With you is more special!Instagram. Retrieved 30 December 2016.
  45. Jump up^ Steele, Michele (7 October 2016). “NWHL player Harrison Browne comes out as a transgender man”ESPN. Retrieved 9 April 2017.
  46. Jump up to:a b c d Williams, Ollie (2014). “England’s Kate Richardson-Walsh on marrying her team-mate”BBC.com. Retrieved 10 June 2014.
  47. Jump up^ Buckley, Steve (6 January 2011). “Welcome to my coming-out party”Boston Herald. Retrieved 15 January 2012.
  48. Jump up^ Welt.de: Olympiasiegerin erhält 590.000 Euro Abfindung (german)
  49. Jump up^ Carter, Daniel (3 September 2013). “Canadian speed skater attacks Russia’s anti-gay law and admits she’s ‘proud to be gayPink News. Retrieved 3 September 2013.
  50. Jump up^ Mirtle, James (6 February 2010). “Leafs Win One for Brian Burke”The Globe and Mail. Retrieved 4 January 2012.
  51. Jump up^ “Glenn Burke, an Openly Gay Baseball Player, Dies”Reuters. 1 June 1995. Archived from the original on 6 January 2012. Retrieved 4 January 2012.
  52. Jump up^ “Gay ex-Olympic gymnast Kris Burley remembers the isolation, fear”Outsports, December 3, 2014.
  53. Jump up^ “German pole-vaulter Yvonne Buschbaum retires, plans hormone treatment”. Associated Press. 21 November 2007. Retrieved 5 January 2012.
  54. Jump up^ Collins, Philip (24 October 2007). “Obituary: Ivan Bussens”The Guardian. Retrieved 5 January 2012.
  55. Jump up^ “It’s never too late”gayhockey.com. 6 December 2012. Archived from the original on 15 December 2012. Retrieved 5 February 2013.
  56. Jump up^ Kobrin, Sandra; Levin, Jason (21 August 2005). “The Glass Closet”Los Angeles Times. Retrieved 5 January 2012.
  57. Jump up^ “Olympic medallist Caitlin Cahow says politics can’t be avoided on big stage”Global News. 19 December 2013. Retrieved 12 June 2014.
  58. Jump up^ “Survival of the Fittest”Instinct. 1 February 2007. Archived from the original on 26 January 2013. Retrieved 5 January 2012.
  59. Jump up^ McManus, Bridget (22 July 2011). “Afternoon delight”AfterEllen.com. Archived from the original on 20 January 2013. Retrieved 14 January 2012.
  60. Jump up^ Summerscale, Kate (August 1997). The Queen of Whale Cay: The Eccentric Story of ‘Joe’ Carstairs, Fastest Woman on Water. Fourth Estate. ISBN 1-85702-360-9.
  61. Jump up^ TheGuardian:: Love wins: Brazilian women’s rugby player gets first Olympic marriage proposal
  62. Jump up^ Laura, Greene (25 March 2004). “Thai “Ladyboy” Kickboxer Is Gender-Bending Knockout”National Geographic. Retrieved 13 January 2012.
  63. Jump up^ [1]
  64. Jump up^ https://www.thechronicle.com.au/news/rainbow-round-holds-special-meaning-for-me/3163229/
  65. Jump up^ “Why NBA center Jason Collins is coming out now”Sports Illustrated. 29 April 2013. Retrieved 29 April 2013.
  66. Jump up^ “Now Starting for the Sonoma Stompers”Slate. 3 May 2016. Retrieved 28 March2017.
  67. Jump up^ “Gold Medallist Natalie Cook marries Sarah Marshall”The Courier-Mail. 30 November 2008. Retrieved 5 January 2012.
  68. Jump up^ “Rosie Cossar, 2012 Olympic gymnast, on being gay and changing the sports world”Outsports, December 1, 2014.
  69. Jump up^ Roberta Cowell’s Story by Roberta Cowell, Heinemann, 1954
  70. Jump up^ Fisher, Marshall Jon (2009). A terrible splendor: three extraordinary men, a world poised for war, and the greatest tennis match ever played. Random House Digital, Inc. p. 49. ISBN 0-307-39394-1.
  71. Jump up^ “Sochi: Canadian Olympians weigh in on Russia’s anti-gay law”Toronto Star, August 16, 2013.
  72. Jump up to:a b Cranston, Toller; Martha Lowder Kimball (2000). When Hell Freezes Over: Should I Bring My Skates?. McClelland & Stewart. ISBN 0-7710-2337-5.
  73. Jump up^ Lisa Cross
  74. Jump up^ “Orlando Cruz ‘Proudly GayESPN. 4 October 2012. Retrieved 4 October 2012.
  75. Jump up^ “On This Day, February 11: 1976: John Curry skates to Olympic gold”BBC. 11 February 1976. Retrieved 5 January 2012.
  76. Jump up^ “GAA star Donal Og Cusack: Teammates helped me through ordeal of revealing I am gay”The Belfast Telegraph. 20 October 2009. Retrieved 5 January 2012.
  77. Jump up^ QX.se:
  78. Jump up^ “Tom Daley declares ‘I am a gay man now. 3 April 2014.
  79. Jump up^ Evans, Martin (27 February 2011). “Steven Davies: England cricketer announces he is gay”The Daily Telegraph. Retrieved 5 January 2012.
  80. Jump up^ Magowan, Alistair (15 January 2014). “How I came out: Britain’s only openly gay footballer”BBC Sport.
  81. Jump up^ “Wade Davis Talks about Being Gay: Former NFL player working with LGBTQ youth for the first time”OUTSports. 5 June 2011. Archived from the original on 17 January 2013.
  82. Jump up^ “Australian tennis star announces she is gay and that she is now a mother”Pink News. 30 August 2013.
  83. Jump up^ Hine, Chris; Thompson, Phil (August 3, 2016). “Elena Delle Donne engaged, comes out: ‘I’m not at all going to hide anythingChicago Tribune. Retrieved August 9, 2016.
  84. Jump up^ http://www.jsonline.com/sports/brewers/brewers-minor-leaguer-makes-baseball-history-by-coming-out-publicly-as-gay-b99557156z1-321977731.html
  85. Jump up^ NEW JERSEY’S DARIA BERENATO TAKING RISKS, MAKING HISTORY ON PATH TO WWE
  86. Jump up^ Exclusive Conversation with Chris Dickerson Archived 4 August 2014 at the Wayback Machine.
  87. Jump up to:a b Misset, Robèrt (28 June 2011). Ik ben nu degene die ik wil zijnVolkskrant (in Dutch). Retrieved 6 August 2012.
  88. Jump up^ Barbassa, Juliana (6 May 2011). “Brazil athlete comes out after homophobic slurs”NBC Sports. Retrieved 10 January 2012.
  89. Jump up^ Allen, Dan (13 April 2004). “The lonely gay Olympian”The Advocate. p. 46. Retrieved 5 January 2012.
  90. Jump up^ Webb, Margaret (5 September 2002). “Team Canada athlete comes out”Xtra!. Retrieved 31 December 2017.
  91. Jump up^ Duff, Michelle (1999). The Mike Duff Story: Make Haste Slowly. Toronto: Mad8 Publishing. p. 366.
  92. Jump up^ Chris Duffy: Out There!
  93. Jump up^ Kingston, Gary (3 August 2006). “Banned for mocking transgendered winner: Podium protest earns second-place cyclist censure”The Vancouver Sun. Archived from the original on 4 November 2012. Retrieved 5 January 2012.
  94. Jump up^ https://www.outsports.com/2016/9/13/12908366/medals-paralympics-rio-lgbt-athletes
  95. Jump up^ “Bobsledder Simon Dunn On Breaking The Ice For Out Athletes In Winter Sports”LOGO News. Retrieved 2018-05-19.
  96. Jump up to:a b Stern, Keith (2009). Queers in History: The Comprehensive Encyclopedia of Historical Gays, Lesbians and Bisexuals. BenBella Books. p. 327. ISBN 1-933771-87-9.
  97. Jump up^ “Top Swiss football referee comes out as gay”Gay Star News. 10 December 2017.
  98. Jump up^ McDonald, Keisha (4 January 2018). “Dancing On Ice star Matt Evers realised he was gay after heartbreaking family death”Metro. Retrieved 28 January 2018.
  99. Jump up^ “Janelly Farías – EXATLÓN Estados Unidos: Lo que tienes que saber” (in Spanish). Ahoramismo.com. 15 August 2018. Retrieved 14 September 2018.
  100. Jump up^ Allen, Matt (August 2004). “Justin Fashanu”attitude. Archived from the original on 13 March 2007. Retrieved 5 January 2012.
  101. Jump up^ Irwin, Sally (2000). Between heaven and earth: the life of a mountaineer, Freda du Faur 1882–1935White Crane PressISBN 0-9578183-0-0.
  102. Jump up^ “Luger John Fennell tells the world he’s gay” Archived 29 May 2014 at the Wayback Machine.. Regina Leader-Post, May 28, 2014.
  103. Jump up^ Gross, Larry P. (2001). Up from invisibility: lesbians, gay men, and the media in America. Columbia University Press. p. 203. ISBN 0-231-11953-4.
  104. Jump up^ Expressen:. “Fischer gifter sig med flickvännen efter EM”
  105. Jump up^ Aggie athlete, openly gay
  106. Jump up^ https://www.theguardian.com/sport/2017/nov/27/mark-foster-come-out-gay-swimming-interview
  107. Jump up^ Bishop, Greg; Begg, Jack (10 May 2013). “For Transgender Fighter Fallon Fox, There Is Solace in the Cage”NYTimes.comThe New York Times Company. Retrieved 25 May2013.
  108. Jump up to:a b “Após tratamento de fertilização, Larissa engravida e será mãe com Lili”Globoesporte. Retrieved 19 September 2013.
  109. Jump up^ ZumMallen, Ryan (14 March 2013). “Former 49er Free Charging The Comedy Game”Gazettes.comArchived from the original on 4 January 2014.
  110. Jump up^ “Tadd Fujikawa becomes first male professional golfer to publicly come out as gay”. 12 September 2018. Retrieved 13 September 2018.
  111. Jump up to:a b Fjeldstad, Jesper (8 February 2017). “Crows AFLW player Erin Phillips opens up about her wife Tracy Gahan and new twins”Daily Telegraph. News Limited. Retrieved 13 February 2017.
  112. Jump up to:a b “Edward Gal and Hans Peter Minderhoud, One Track Minds”Eurodressage.com. 10 January 2010. Retrieved 8 January 2012.
  113. Jump up^ Brennan, Christine (1997). Inside Edge: A Revealing Journey into the Secret World of Figure Skating. New York: Anchor Books. ISBN 0-385-48607-3.
  114. Jump up^ “A league of her own”The Advocate. 26 August 2008. Retrieved 8 January 2012.
  115. Jump up^ “Ed Gallagher, who turned suicide attempt to activism, dies”Outsports. 13 May 2005. Archived from the original on 17 February 2009. Retrieved 5 January 2012.
  116. Jump up^ “Wedding of the sporting girls”Halifax Courier. 1 June 2010. Retrieved 8 January2012.
  117. Jump up^ “Terry Garvin: A career overshadowed”Canadian Online Explorer. 22 December 2005. Retrieved 10 January 2012.
  118. Jump up^ Crouse, Karen (29 August 2010). “A Dream Deferred, Almost Too Long”The New York Times. Retrieved 8 January 2012.
  119. Jump up^ Branch, John (23 April 2013). “A Potential Pioneer, Just Looking for a Job”New York Times. Retrieved 24 April 2013.
  120. Jump up^ “UMass’ Derrick Gordon says he’s gay”. ESPN. 6 April 2014.
  121. Jump up^ AfterEllen.com:
  122. Jump up^ “Who Was Bobby Goldsmith?”Bobby Goldsmith Foundation. Archived from the original on 12 January 2012. Retrieved 10 January 2012.
  123. Jump up^ Garber, Greg (27 May 2005). “Now I get to be like everybody else”ESPN.com. Retrieved 5 January 2012.
  124. Jump up^ Granderson, LZ (8 February 2007). “Another ex-athlete comes out? Not impressed”ESPN.com. Retrieved 15 January 2012.
  125. Jump up^ Smith, Gary (18 April 2005). “The Shadow Boxer”Sports Illustrated. Retrieved 8 January 2012.
  126. Jump up^ Feinberg, Doug (18 April 2013). “Griner, Delle Donne and Diggins dealt with bullies”SI.comAssociated Press. Archived from the original on 18 April 2013. Retrieved 18 April2013‘It [bullying] was hard. Just being picked on for being different. Just being bigger, my sexuality, everything,’ said the 6-foot-8 Griner, who acknowledged she is a lesbian. ‘I overcame it and got over it. Definitely something that I am very passionate about. I want to work with kids and bring recognition to the problem, especially with the LGBT community.’
  127. Jump up^ Belge, Kathy (15 September 2005). “One Lesbian Olympian’s Story”About.com. Archived from the original on 9 February 2012. Retrieved 5 January 2012.
  128. Jump up^ Backlund, Anders (14 November 2009). “Komma ut svårare än OS-kval”QX (in Swedish). Retrieved 13 January 2012.
  129. Jump up^ Adams, Mary Louise (2011). Artistic Impressions: Figure Skating, Masculinity, and the Limits of Sport. University of Toronto Press. p. 63. ISBN 1-4426-1171-5.
  130. Jump up^ Stern, Keith (2009). Queers in History: The Comprehensive Encyclopedia of Historical Gays, Lesbians and Bisexuals. BenBella Books. p. 326. ISBN 1-933771-87-9.
  131. Jump up^ Williamson, Martin. “Player profile: Alan Hansford”. ESPNcricinfo. Retrieved 14 March2012.
  132. Jump up^ “Domestic charges for Kwame Harris”ESPN.com. Associated Press. 29 January 2013. Archived from the original on 30 January 2013.
  133. Jump up^ Godlewski, Nina (2017-06-25). “Who Is Todd Harrity? Professional Squash’s First Openly Gay Male Athlete”. Newsweek.com. Retrieved 2018-05-02.
  134. Jump up^ Todd Harrity (2018-04-28). “Todd Harrity on Twitter: “‌ . Twitter.com. Retrieved 2018-05-02.
  135. Jump up^ Garber, Greg (25 May 2007). “Is gay coach’s dismissal a cautionary tale?”ESPN.com. Retrieved 5 January 2012.
  136. Jump up^ “Bruce Hayes”. Archived from the original on 11 May 2006. Retrieved 5 January2012.
  137. Jump up^ Rubin, Dana (May 1992). “Courting Costs”Texas Monthly. p. 52. Retrieved 8 January2012.
  138. Jump up^ Schrader, Stef (7 February 2018). “Racing Legend Hurley Haywood Comes Out After Mother Credits Him With Saving Her Son’s Life”Jalopnik. Retrieved 7 February 2018.
  139. Jump up^ Four-time Olympic gold medallist Jayna Hefford enjoying family life Archived 14 May 2014 at the Wayback Machine.. May 10, 2014
  140. Jump up^ “DNA READERS’ EMAILS, LETTERS AND RAMBLINGS…” dnamagazine.com.au. Archived from the original on 30 December 2014. Retrieved 18 February 2013.
  141. Jump up^ Jorik Hendrickx: “Mijn geaardheid is geen factor wanneer ik schaats”
  142. Jump up^ Creech, Jenny Dial (26 June 2018). “Outreach to all fans is point of pride for Dash”. Houston Chronicle. Retrieved 13 July 2018.
  143. Jump up^ “Isabell Herlovsen står fram som lesbisk”TV 2 (Norway). 5 July 2011. Retrieved 8 January 2012.
  144. Jump up^ Pinknews: Team gold for Britain’s only openly gay Olympian Carl Hester
  145. Jump up^ “Rugby League star Keegan Hirst becomes first Brit player to come out as gay”Daily Mirror. 17 August 2015. Retrieved 17 August 2015.
  146. Jump up^ “Thomas Hitzlsperger bekennt sich zu seiner Homosexualität”ZEIT. Retrieved 8 January 2014.
  147. Jump up^ “Marieke Wijsman”sportersweb-gelijkspelen.nl. 5 July 2011. Retrieved 8 January2013.
  148. Jump up^ Sonnenberg, Mathias; Traemann, Kai (1 April 2011). “Ich bin die Torfrau, die mit einer Frau verheiratet ist”Bild (in German). Retrieved 8 January 2012.
  149. Jump up to:a b “OS-hjältarna: Vi är homosexuella” (in Swedish). 31 May 2006. Retrieved 5 January2012.
  150. Jump up^ Payne, Marissa (March 22, 2017). “Transgender woman wins international weightlifting title amid controversy over fairness”The Washington Post. Retrieved March 25, 2017.
  151. Jump up^ Olympic archer Karen Hultzer comes out gay-games
  152. Jump up to:a b c d “Best. Lesbian. Week. Ever”. 12 February 2010. Archived from the original on 23 July 2012. Retrieved 5 January 2012.
  153. Jump up^ “Son of former Liverpool star Glenn Hysen becomes first high-profile Swedish footballer to reveal that he’s gay”Daily Mail. 9 March 2011. Retrieved 5 January 2012.
  154. Jump up^ UK Reuters:Ski jumping-Austria’s Iraschko dreams of Olympic flight
  155. Jump up^ “Ives, George Cecil (IVS885GC)”A Cambridge Alumni Database. University of Cambridge.
  156. Jump up^ “Player profile: George Ives”. CricketArchive. Retrieved 28 April 2014.
  157. Jump up^ “The Advocate Report: Transition”The Advocate. 8 July 1997. p. 20. Retrieved 6 January 2012.
  158. Jump up^ “Olympic medallist Colin Jackson announces he is gay”The Guardian. 28 August 2017. Retrieved 18 March 2018.
  159. Jump up^ Forman, Ross (15 December 2010). “Angela James: Canadian lesbian—and hockey legend”Windy City Times. Retrieved 6 January 2012.
  160. Jump up^ Simmons, Todd (21 January 1997). “Out at the Olympics”The Advocate. Retrieved 6 January 2012.
  161. Jump up^ Queer.de: Mindestens 14 Mitglieder im Team LGBTI (german)
  162. Jump up to:a b Lehane, Magali (16 August 2011). “Bente Nordby”Univers-L.com. Retrieved 13 February 2012
  163. Jump up^ “Pärsonova razkrila, da je lezbijka” (in Slovenian). RTV Slovenija. 24 June 2012. Retrieved 17 January 2013.
  164. Jump up^ “Surfer, believed to be China’s first openly gay athlete, to attend Gay Games”Outsports.
  165. Jump up^ http://www.latimes.com/sports/sportsnow/la-sp-sn-brittney-griner-glory-johnson-engagement-20140816-story.html
  166. Jump up^ Brady, Nicole (23 October 2011). “Playing it straight”The Sydney Morning Herald. Retrieved 12 February 2012.
  167. Jump up^ Sirak, Ron (9 April 2004). “Rosie Jones is gay, so what?”Golf World. Archived from the original on 9 April 2004. Retrieved 30 December 2011.
  168. Jump up^ ?, ? (3 February 2013). “Steffi Jones outet sich – “Ja, wir sind ein PaarWelt. Retrieved 6 February 2013.
  169. Jump up^ Summers, C.T (15 September 2006). “Wrestler Orlando Jordan :: Bi and Proud”EDGE Boston. Retrieved 6 January 2012.
  170. Jump up^ Kanyon, Chris; Clark, Ryan (2008). Who Better Than Kanyon?: In and Out of the Ring. Sports Publishing LLC. ISBN 1-59670-300-8.
  171. Jump up to:a b “Opvallend: veldrittoppers outen zich als holebikoppel”HLN.be (in Dutch). 2016. Retrieved 30 December 2016.
  172. Jump up^ “Peter Karlsson”AndrejKoymasky.com. 28 September 2002. Retrieved 6 January2012.
  173. Jump up^ Four-time Olympic gold medallist Jayna Hefford enjoying family life Archived 14 May 2014 at the Wayback Machine.
  174. Jump up^ Caldwell, John (7 December 2004). “Out and silver in Holland”The Advocate. Retrieved 6 December 2012.
  175. Jump up^ Grenoble, Ryan (22 October 2015). “Olympic Silver Medalist Gus Kenworthy Comes Out As Gay”Huffington Post. Retrieved 13 May 2016.
  176. Jump up^ L.Mag.de: Die Hochzeiten, Verlobungen, Regenbogenbabies und Abschiede 2017 (german)
  177. Jump up^ “Gay Dutch Speed Skater Ireen Wüst Isn’t Happy Her Sexuality Became an Olympic Story”queerty.com. Retrieved 18 February 2013.
  178. Jump up^ Seoghoer: Lesbiske-haandboldpiger-skilt
  179. Jump up^ Belge, Kathy. “Billie Jean King: Tennis Legend”About.com. Archived from the original on 19 December 2011. Retrieved 6 January 2012.
  180. Jump up^ “Homophobia in sports still pervasive in Canada, new study shows”CBC News, May 9, 2015.
  181. Jump up to:a b Nu.nl:Atleten bezorgd over Russische antihomowet
  182. Jump up^ “Evert, Navratilova weigh in on tennis legend Billie Jean King”Pittsburgh Tribune-Review. Associated Press. 23 April 2006. Archived from the original on 22 April 2009. Retrieved 6 January 2012.
  183. Jump up^ “Coming-Out des österreichischen Schwimmers und EM-Medaillengewinner Dominik Koll”. thinkoutsideyourbox.net. Retrieved 21 August 2014.
  184. Jump up^ Garber, Greg (15 January 1999). “Still waiting for a hero”ESPN. Retrieved 6 January2012.
  185. Jump up^ Bradley, Seamus (18 April 2010). “Out and proud: Daniel Kowalski breaks silence”The Sydney Morning Herald. Retrieved 6 January 2012.
  186. Jump up^ Hamburger Abendblatt.de: Katja Kraus heiratet von der Leyens Staatssekretärin(german)
  187. Jump up^ Longman, Jere (26 January 2004). “Drug Testing; East German Steroids’ Toll: ‘They Killed HeidiNew York Times. Retrieved 8 January 2012.
  188. Jump up^ “World record powerlifter is trans and genderfluid, living as Janae Marie Kroc”. Outsports. Retrieved 2015-07-28.
  189. Jump up^ https://www.instagram.com/p/BF–s_WCdqA/
  190. Jump up^ “Gold medal Olympic goaltender Charline Labonte comes out as gay”Toronto Sun. 11 June 2014. Retrieved 12 June 2014.
  191. Jump up^ Outsports.com: “Top French handballer Alexandra Lacrabère comes out, will play in Summer Olympics Archived 26 July 2012 at the Wayback Machine.
  192. Jump up^ “Bijzonder huwelijk voor international Kim Lammers” (in Dutch). 1 April 2011. Retrieved 6 August 2012.
  193. Jump up^ Gad, Magda (18 November 2008). “Jessica Landström, Årets nykomling”QX. Retrieved 8 January 2012.
  194. Jump up^ Reid, Scott M. (20 August 2008). “Olympian comes to terms with sexual identity”The Orange County Register. Archived from the original on 23 August 2008. Retrieved 8 January 2012.
  195. Jump up^ Iorfida, Chris (24 July 2009). “Leduc remembered as Olympic champ, gay role model”CBC.ca. Retrieved 6 January 2012.
  196. Jump up^ “Mapi León: “Ya nos tocaba no estar a la sombra [Mapi León: “It was already our turn not to be in the shade”] (in Spanish). Mundo Deportivo. 5 July 2018. Retrieved 15 July2018I do not need to shout to everyone that I am a lesbian, but I do believe that society needed it
  197. Jump up^ “Hedvig drömmer om OS-guld” (in Swedish). Hemmets Journal. 24 July 2012. Retrieved 26 May 2013.
  198. Jump up^ Lora on September 5, 2012 at 9:05am PST (2012-09-05). “Lori Lindsey, USWNT Dark Horse: The Autostraddle Coming Out Interview”. Autostraddle. Retrieved 21 August2014.
  199. Jump up^ “Attitude cover star Matt Lister: I didn’t want to come out while I was in school”Attitude, May 22, 2016.
  200. Jump up^ Jarno Ranta (2014-02-02). “Suomalainen olympiauimari kaapista ulos – “Vihdoin voin olla oma itseni. Yle Urheilu. Retrieved 21 August 2014.
  201. Jump up to:a b Lynch, Katie (29 November 2011). “An interview with Women’s Professional Soccer players Joanna Lohman and Lianne Sanderson”AfterEllen. Retrieved 12 February 2014.
  202. Jump up^ Fearnley, Peter (28 August 2015). “She made her point”Motor Sport Magazine.
  203. Jump up^ Louganis, Greg; Marcus, Eric (2006). Breaking the Surface. Sourcebooks, Inc. ISBN 1-4022-0666-6.
  204. Jump up^ “Philadelphia Boxer Yusaf Mack Sets Record Straight Over Gay Porn Allegations”. Philadelphia: WTXF-TV. 5 November 2015. Archived from the original on 8 December 2015. Retrieved 5 November 2015.
  205. Jump up^ Folley, Malcolm (6 May 2001). “Mandlikova to raise family with another woman”Mail Online. Retrieved 6 January 2012.
  206. Jump up^ “Olympic rower Robbie Manson: It’s all right to be gay”Stuff. Retrieved 12 June 2018.
  207. Jump up^ “Gay and proud: Canada’s only publicly gay MP tells his story”. Maclean’s, May 16, 1994.
  208. Jump up^ Morrison, Jane Ann (28 May 2011). “Boxer tells of her attack to draw attention to domestic violence”Las Vegas Review-Journal. Retrieved 13 January 2012.
  209. Jump up^ Jenkins, Bruce (25 May 2010). “Mauresmo deserves Hall honor”CNN Sports Illustrated. Retrieved 6 January 2012.
  210. Jump up^ “Minnesota United’s Collin Martin comes out as gay”. ESPN. June 29, 2018. Retrieved June 29, 2018.
  211. Jump up to:a b http://gay4soccer.com/2016/06/02/bianca-sierra-stephany-mayor
  212. Jump up^ “Marriage, medals and mentorship”. Toronto Star, November 7, 2014.
  213. Jump up to:a b Hamilton, Scott; Lorenzo Benet (1999). Landing It: My Life On And Off The Ice. New York, NY: Kensington Books. ISBN 1-57566-466-6.
  214. Jump up^ Kroeger, Brooke (2004). Passing: When People Can’t Be Who They Are. New York: PublicAffairs. p. 238. ISBN 1-58648-287-4.
  215. Jump up^ Bull, Chris (16 February 2004). “The Healer”ESPN The Magazine. Retrieved 8 January 2012
  216. Jump up^ Brady, Rachel (28 May 2015). “Keeper Erin McLeod comes out, leads team and fans as Canadian role model”The Globe and Mail. Retrieved 18 November 2017.
  217. Jump up^ “Linda står frem som lesbisk”Verdens Gang. 30 June 1999. Retrieved 8 January2012.
  218. Jump up^ Outsports.com: 2018 Olympics will have a record 14 out LGBTQ athletes
  219. Jump up^ Quick, Jason (28 January 2014). “Kicking down barriers: Willamette’s Conner Mertens says he is bisexual in hopes of ending stereotypes”The OregonianArchived from the original on 15 February 2014.
  220. Jump up^ Outsports.com: 2018 Olympics will have a record 15 out LGBTQ athletes
  221. Jump up^ https://zizo-online.be/article/12785
  222. Jump up to:a b “Heroes Among Us: Holly Metcalf and Mark Tewksbury”WGBH-TV Lectures. 30 April 2003. Retrieved 31 December 2017.
  223. Jump up^ lezbelib.com: German swimmer Theresa Michalak came out via her Facebook page
  224. Jump up^ “The challenge of being gay in Bermuda – Bermuda Sun”bermudasun.bm. Retrieved 8 December 2017.
  225. Jump up^ Dennett, Harley (August 2008). “A Backward Three–Somersault Tuck (With a Twist)”The Advocate. p. 1. Retrieved 6 January 2012.
  226. Jump up^ “How this gay Olympic ski jumper did the impossible”Outsports, July 8, 2015.
  227. Jump up^ Jones, Arnold Wayne (28 April 2010). “World champ powerlifter is (still) gay”Dallas Voice. Retrieved 6 January 2012.
  228. Jump up^ Jameson, John (28 August 2008). “70 Is the New 40”The Advocate. Retrieved 31 December 2017.
  229. Jump up^ Dreier, Frederick (5 August 2011). “For Transgender Triathlete, a Top Finish in New York Is Secondary”The New York Times. Retrieved 17 January 2014.
  230. Jump up^ “9-time All-Ireland winner Valerie Mulcahy comes out in Donal Óg documentary”The42.ie. 14 January 2015.
  231. Jump up^ “Hochzeit mit-Sabine und-Suche nach Samenspender”Die Welt (in German). 1 January 2014.
  232. Jump up^ LVZ.de: “Bietigheim holt Ex-HCL-Stars Susann Müller und Nina Wörz” (german)
  233. Jump up^ [http://www.lvz.de/Sport/HC-Leipzig/News/Bietigheim-holt-Ex-HCL-Stars-Susann-Mueller-und-Nina-Woerz LVZ.de: “Bietigheim holt Ex-HCL-Stars Susann Müller und Nina Wörz” (german)
  234. Jump up to:a b Reese, Gary N. (11 June 1996). “Golfer Muffin Spencer-Devlin and ice skater Rudy Galindo test the limits of straight America’s acceptance of gay sports heroes”The Advocate. Retrieved 6 January 2012.
  235. Jump up^ Townley, Ben (24 August 2004). “Athens 2004: UK’s only gay athlete talks”Gay.com. Archived from the original on 8 August 2007. Retrieved 12 January 2012.
  236. Jump up^ Norton, Scott (19 May 2011). “PBA Rookie of the Year Scott Norton: Being gay doesn’t define who I am as a person or as a professional athlete”. Retrieved 30 December 2011.
  237. Jump up^ Lipsyte, Robert (12 September 1999). “Reflections on a Secret Life in Professional Sports”The New York Times. Retrieved 21 August 2014.
  238. Jump up^ Stilson, Tina (19 August 2008). “Hammerseng drømmer om barn”[2]. Retrieved 21 August 2014. External link in |work= (help)
  239. Jump up^ Gallagher, Brendan (31 January 2011). “Graeme Obree, former world pursuit champion and hour record holder, reveals he is homosexual”The Daily Telegraph. Retrieved 4 April 2011.
  240. Jump up^ “Former NFL tackle Ryan O’Callaghan comes out as gay”Outsports. Retrieved 2017-06-20.
  241. Jump up^ Zeigler, Jr., Cyd (17 July 2008). “Olympic figure skater comes out”OutSports.com. Archived from the original on 24 June 2011. Retrieved 30 December 2011.
  242. Jump up^ “Ready, Set, Come Out”The Advocate. 2 February 1999. Retrieved 6 January 2012.
  243. Jump up^ [3]
  244. Jump up^ Bevan, Nathan (20 May 2007). “Ref’s gay torment”Western Mail. Retrieved 7 January2012.
  245. Jump up^ [4]
  246. Jump up^ [https://www.outsports.com/2017/3/13/14890712/sarka-pancochova-lgbt-snowboarder-olympics Outsports.com: Olympic snowboarder Sarka Pancochova is ‘stoked’ to come out publicly ]
  247. Jump up^ Romesburg, Don (11 September 2001). “A model gay marriage goes bad – former Mr. Universe Bob Paris and former Playgirl model Rod Jackson”The Advocate. Retrieved 7 January 2012.
  248. Jump up^ Kreiser, Jamie Melissa (14 March 2008). “Sandy Parker: Addicted to wrestling”Slam! Sports Canadian Online Explorer. Retrieved 8 January 2012.
  249. Jump up^ “International match to honour lesbian football hero”Pink News. 16 January 2008. Retrieved 8 January 2012.
  250. Jump up^ Borchert, Thomas (16 July 2012). “Anja Paerson: Love to woman “steepest slope of my life. Archived from the original on 19 July 2012. Retrieved 6 August 2012.
  251. Jump up^ Stuever, Hank (12 September 2002). “Wrestlers Going to the Mat For Gay Rights? Not Exactly”The Washington Post. p. C.01. Retrieved 7 January 2012.
  252. Jump up^ Philip, Robert (30 December 2004). I feel lucky that I have found my talent, what riding has given me is respectThe Daily Telegraph. Retrieved 8 January 2012.
  253. Jump up^ Pears, Tim (28 June 2008). “Otto the strange: The champion who defied the Nazis”The Guardian. Retrieved 8 January 2012.
  254. Jump up^ Thursby, Keith (29 November 2009). “Mike Penner dies at 52; Los Angeles Times sportswriter”New York Times. Retrieved 8 January 2012.
  255. Jump up^ Ghent, Bill (26 September 2006). “Making a Splash”The Advocate. Retrieved 7 January 2012.
  256. Jump up^ Jeria, Diego (24 July 2018). “La lucha de Fernanda Pinilla: “Soy lesbiana y feminista, en Chile no me puedo casar ni adoptar [Fernanda Pinilla’s fight: “I’m a lesbian and feminist, in Chile I cannot marry nor adopt”] (in Spanish). RedGol. Retrieved 25 July 2018.
  257. Jump up^ “Gay footballer in New Year Honours list”BBC. 30 December 2010. Retrieved 8 January 2012.
  258. Jump up^ Burston, Paul (20 June 2011). “The Pride Power List 2011”. Archived from the original on 14 January 2012. Retrieved 8 January 2012.
  259. Jump up^ LaurenPowers.com’s Details
  260. Jump up to:a b “Eric Radford: Olympic figure skater, medal-winning family man. And gay.”Outsports, December 4, 2014.
  261. Jump up^ Fortwood, Jerry (2 July 2012). “Fever Pitch”Out. Retrieved 5 July 2012.
  262. Jump up to:a b Pearce, Linda (7 January 2006). “Never lost for words”The Age. Retrieved 7 January 2012.
  263. Jump up^ “Is NASCAR Ready For An Openly Gay Driver?”Foxsports.com. 17 July 2013. Retrieved 26 September 2013.
  264. Jump up^ Kraus, Carolyn (2002). “Renee Richards” (PDF)glbtq.com. Retrieved 31 December2017.
  265. Jump up^ “Rippon comes out as gay in SKATING magazine”icenetwork.com. Retrieved 2018-01-05.
  266. Jump up^ “Het zomeravondgesprek Lucia Rijker en Ellie Lust”NRC Handelsblad (in Dutch). 10 August 2014. Retrieved 23 September 2014.
  267. Jump up^ “Interview with Ian Roberts”ABC News (Australia). 26 September 2005. Retrieved 7 January 2012.
  268. Jump up^ Hunter, Tab; Muller, Eddie (2006). Tab Hunter Confidential: The Making of a Movie Star. Algonquin Books. p. 76. ISBN 1-56512-548-7. Retrieved 8 January 2012.
  269. Jump up^ Firchau, Nick (15 February 2013). “Former Crew MF Rogers says he’s gay, leaving soccer”.
  270. Jump up^ Instagram accounts
  271. Jump up^ “Olivier Rouyer, commentateur sportif et ex-footballeur, fait son coming-out”Têtu (in French). 19 February 2008. Archived from the original on 1 June 2009. Retrieved 7 January 2012.
  272. Jump up^ DeWittison, Cedric (24 October 2011). “Porn Megastar Matthew Rush Retires: A Career Retrospective”Fleshbot.com. Archived from the original on 26 October 2011. Retrieved 10 January 2012.
  273. Jump up^ Cockerill, Michael (26 November 2011). “Finally making history for all the right reasons”The Sydney Morning Herald. Retrieved 10 January 2012.
  274. Jump up^ “IFBB Pro Angela Salvagno”. Archived from the original on 25 September 2011. Retrieved 3 June 2014.
  275. Jump up^ Connelly, Chris (9 February 2014). “Mizzou’s Michael Sam says he’s gay”ESPN. Retrieved 9 February 2014.
  276. Jump up^ Bråstedt, Mats (26 July 2008). “Victoria Svensson talar ut om kärleken till frun”Expressen (in Swedish). Retrieved 10 January 2012.
  277. Jump up^ Jennings, Chantel (13 August 2014). “Chip Sarafin comes out publicly”ABC News.
  278. Jump up^ “Christopher Saynt: Other gay wrestlers are too scared to come out”PinkNews. Retrieved 2017-06-07.
  279. Jump up^ “Video: My life as a gay wrestler in Scotland”HeraldScotland. Retrieved 2017-06-07.
  280. Jump up^ Rick Broadbent, “From Erika to Erik, a long journey of self-discovery”The Times, 22 October 2009.
  281. Jump up^ “Umpire Dale Scott says he’s gay”ESPN. 2 December 2014. Retrieved 2 December2014.
  282. Jump up^ Lundgren, Jessica (December 2013). “Seger Ärvår” (PDF) (in Swedish). QX. p. 21. Archived from the original (PDF) on 18 May 2014. Retrieved 18 May 2014.
  283. Jump up^ “Caster Semenya on being lesbian: It’s something I felt from young”.
  284. Jump up^ “INTERVIEW: Jack Sexsmith”Just An Insight. 2016-07-10. Retrieved 2017-06-07.
  285. Jump up^ “Jack Sexsmith on Life and Wrestling – Kayfabe Today”kayfabetoday.com. Retrieved 2017-06-07.
  286. Jump up^ “Quote, unquote”The Advocate. 12 May 1998. Retrieved 7 January 2012.
  287. Jump up^ O’Neil, Dana (16 May 2011). “Will Sheridan: ‘I’m proud of who I amESPN. Retrieved 7 January 2012.
  288. Jump up^ braziliense, redação (7 October 2014). “Jacquie Silva marries her partner”Correio Braziliense. Retrieved 2 September 2015.
  289. Jump up^ Kelly, Annie (12 March 2009). “Raped and killed for being a lesbian: South Africa ignores ‘corrective’ attacks”The Guardian. Retrieved 10 January 2012.
  290. Jump up^ Simmons, Roy; DiMarco, Damon; Fisher, David; Hester, Jimmy (2006). Out of Bounds: Coming Out of Sexual Abuse, Addiction, and My Life of Lies in the NFL Closet. Carroll & Graf Publishers. p. 222. ISBN 0-7867-1681-9
  291. Jump up^ Zeigler, Jr., Cyd (27 April 2009). “Former college football captain was openly gay”Outsports. Archived from the original on 15 January 2013. Retrieved 14 January 2012.
  292. Jump up^ “Kiwi Olympian reveals he is gay”New Zealand Press AssociationTelevision New Zealand. 6 May 2007. Archived from the original on 9 May 2010. Retrieved 7 January2012.
  293. Jump up^ SBNation:Gay Olympians Results, Day 2: Rikke Skov Dominates, Megan Rapinoe Scores
  294. Jump up^ Provenzano, Jim (31 December 2003). “Who was the first gay football player to play in the Super Bowl?”Windy City Times. Retrieved 7 January 2012.
  295. Jump up^ Downey, Sally A. (31 July 2011). “Skater, coach could roll with the best of them”The Philadelphia Inquirer. Retrieved 10 January 2012.
  296. Jump up^ Kinney-Hanson, Sharon (2004). The life of Helen Stephens: the Fulton Flash. Southern Illinois University Press. ISBN 0-8093-2559-4.
  297. Jump up^ Magowan, Alistair (10 February 2014). “Casey Stoney: England captain reveals her sexuality for first time”. BBC Sport. Retrieved 12 February 2014.
  298. Jump up^ Sportschau.de: Porträt Martina Strutz (german)
  299. Jump up^ Durangotelegraph: Tricia Stumpf
  300. Jump up^ “Pia Sundhage kommer ut som homosexuell”QX. 9 January 2010. Retrieved 10 January 2012.
  301. Jump up^ “Team USA volleyball player Stacy Sykora comes out”. AfterEllen.com. Archived from the original on 1 January 2013. Retrieved 21 August 2014.
  302. Jump up^ Wockner, Rex (1 September 2004). “Sports: Out Gays Win Olympic medals”. Retrieved 7 January 2012.
  303. Jump up^ “For kayaker Connor Taras, coming out was ultimate victory”. Toronto Star, July 22, 2014.
  304. Jump up to:a b Voepel, Mechelle (May 26, 2017). “You don’t know Diana Taurasi”espnW.com. Retrieved March 15, 2018.
  305. Jump up^ Béland, Gabriel (10 November 2011). “Gai, David Testo se faisait insulter sur le terrain”CyberPresse.ca (in French). Retrieved 4 January 2012.
  306. Jump up to:a b “Skating past pain”deseretnews.com. 10 October 2004. Retrieved 4 January 2013.
  307. Jump up^ Weathers, Helen (18 December 2009). “British Lions rugby legend Gareth Thomas: ‘It’s ended my marriage and nearly driven me to suicide. Now it’s time to tell the world the truth — I’m gayDaily Mail. Retrieved 7 January 2012.
  308. Jump up^ Khomami, Nadia (12 July 2014). “Ian Thorpe comes out as gay in Parkinson interview”The Guardian. Retrieved 12 July 2014.
  309. Jump up^ “Comment: Coming out not seen as sporting”Pink News. 31 January 2007. Retrieved 7 January 2012.
  310. Jump up^ “Former pro tennis player and gay dad Brian Vahaly tells Margaret Court why she’s wrong about same-sex parents”Outsports. 13 June 2017. Retrieved 7 August 2018.
  311. Jump up^ Williams, Bradley David (June 2006). “Martina Calling”. Archived from the original on 7 November 2006. Retrieved 7 January 2012.
  312. Jump up to:a b “Kiwi gold medalist a “superstar” – partner”GayNZ.com. 2014. Retrieved 30 December 2016.
  313. Jump up^ Tuaolo, Esera; Luke Cyphers (30 October 2002). “Free and Clear”ESPN the Magazine. Retrieved 7 January 2012.
  314. Jump up^ Schwulsein heute – ganz normal?, Die Zeit, 21. Juni 2007, Retrieved: 13. August 2013
  315. Jump up^ “Center is only current player to go public”ESPN. 5 July 2004. Retrieved 4 January2012.
  316. Jump up^ Provenzano, Jim (11 August 2004). “Heroics: Carrying a Torch for Gay Olympians”Windy City Times. Retrieved 4 January 2012.
  317. Jump up^ Belgian Bullet Sophie Vercruyssen third Belgian out athlete at the Winter Olympics
  318. Jump up^ “Seven Shirtless Jocks, Two Are Gay”The Advocate. 27 April 2011. Retrieved 7 January 2011.
  319. Jump up^ Buzinski, Jim (7 November 2000). “Glory – and a little gold – for gay Olympians”The Advocate. Retrieved 7 January 2012.
  320. Jump up^ “Canadian national team volleyball player Chris Voth comes out as gay”Outsports, January 20, 2014.
  321. Jump up^ Kellerman, Robert (16 August 2005). “Waddell, Tom”glbtq.com. Archived from the original on 8 February 2012. Retrieved 7 January 2012.
  322. Jump up^ Thueringer-Allgemeine: Das alles gehört zu mir (German)
  323. Jump up^ Betty Bean, “The Jackie Walker Story,” Metro Pulse, 22 November 2007. Retrieved: 21 June 2014.
  324. Jump up^ “MP Louisa Wall sworn in”Television New Zealand. 4 March 2008. Retrieved 10 January 2012.
  325. Jump up^ Lane, Daniel (10 June 2007). “Ji talking: on highs, lows and a super new move”Sydney Morning Herald. Retrieved 7 January 2012.
  326. Jump up^ Snarker, Dorothy (3 July 2012). “Megan Rapinoe comes out, officially, to OUT”. After Ellen. Archived from the original on 1 January 2013. Retrieved 21 August 2014.
  327. Jump up^ “Soccer Star Abby Wambach Marries”. ESPN. 9 October 2013. Retrieved 19 October2013.
  328. Jump up^ “Sports personalities reveal all about homosexuality”rnw.nl. 21 April 2011. Retrieved 7 February 2013.
  329. Jump up^ “Ann Wauters trouwt op zelfde dag als Kim Clijsters”Het Nieuwsblad (in Dutch). 9 January 2007. Retrieved 7 January 2012.
  330. Jump up^ AfterEllen:Jennie McNulty Presents: Walking Funny With… Saskia Webber
  331. Jump up^ Caparell, Adam (6 January 2011). “Johnny Weir comes out: Flamboyant figure skater admits in new autobiography he’s gay”New York Daily News. Retrieved 7 January 2012.
  332. Jump up^ “Suns prez Rick Welts reveals he’s gay”SportsESPN. 16 May 2011. Retrieved 7 January 2012.
  333. Jump up^ Parker, Christine. “Peter Wherrett (a.k.a. Pip Wilson) 1936–2009”. Retrieved 10 January 2012.
  334. Jump up^ “Sharon Smith & Carole Migden”The Advocate. 14 August 2001. Retrieved 7 January2012.
  335. Jump up^ Solomon, Alisa (8 August 2000). “Sue Wicks’s Forward Behavior: The New York Liberty Vet Talks Dollars, Planes, and Lesbians”The Village Voice. Retrieved 7 January 2012.
  336. Jump up^ Jungmann, Bart (14 November 2008). “Homoseksuele sporters vertellen hun verhaal in boek”de Volkskrant (in Dutch). Retrieved 10 January 2012.
  337. Jump up^ “The Dark Knight Rises.” The Challenge: Rivals II. MTV. 24 July 2013. Television.
  338. Jump up^ Flett, Ted (16 February 2006). “Toronto choreographer becomes figure skating’s hottest property”Xtra!. Archived from the original on 26 May 2011. Retrieved 7 January 2012.
  339. Jump up^ http://vimeo.com/85857657
  340. Jump up^ Bigley, Lydia (4 May 2011). “Women in sports: The lesbian peril”Diva. Archived from the original on 8 March 2012. Retrieved 10 January 2012.
  341. Jump up^ “Ireen Wüst gelukkig met man”De Telegraaf. 29 March 2013. Retrieved 31 March2013.
  342. Jump up^ DuLong, Jessica (19 February 2002). “Out in the Field”The Advocate. Retrieved 4 January 2012.
  343. Jump up^ Mitchell, Houston (15 August 2013). “WWE wrestler Darren Young announces he is gay “Los Angeles Times. Retrieved 16 August 2013.
  344. Jump up^ “WNBA player Sharnee Zoll-Norman comes out publicly as lesbian”Outsports. Retrieved 21 August 2014.

The Top Offshore Power Player revealed incl. the Queen, U.S. Billionaires and Putin’s friends

Explore the offshore connections of world leaders, politicians and their relatives and associates.

Blairo borges maggiPARADISE PAPERS

AGRICULTURE MINISTER, BRAZIL

Blairo Borges Maggi

Maggi and other family members appear in Appleby records as beneficial owners of Amaggi & LD Commodities International Ltd., a Cayman Islands company registered on Sept. 9, 2010,

Related to  Brazil Cayman Islands
Clark wesleyPARADISE PAPERS

CANDIDATE FOR U.S. DEMOCRATIC PARTY PRESIDENTIAL NOMINATION

Wesley K. Clark

Leaked records reveal that in 2014, Amaya’s directors retained the services of Appleby’s office in the Isle of Man – the registered agent for nearly 40 of the company’s subsidiaries.

Related to  United States Canada Isle of Man
Kutesa samPARADISE PAPERS

FOREIGN MINISTER, UGANDA

Sam Kahamba Kutesa

Kutesa created the Obuyonza Discretionary Trust in the Seychelles in 2012. The trust held shares in the Seychelles company Katonga Investments Ltd. He created the trust, watched over its administration.

Related to  Uganda Seychelles
Gusenbauer alfredPARADISE PAPERS

FORMER CHANCELLOR, AUSTRIA

Alfred Gusenbauer

Gusenbauer is one of the directors and legal representatives of Novia Management Ltd., a company registered in Malta in 2014, along with fellow Austrian Herbert Stepic, the former chief of Raiffeisenbank International.

Related to  Austria Malta
Khaled bin sultan bin abdulazizPARADISE PAPERS

FORMER DEPUTY MINISTER OF DEFENSE, SAUDI ARABIA

Prince Khaled bin Sultan bin Abdulaziz

In the 1990s and early 2000s, Appleby’s files list Prince Khaled as the beneficiary of the Acorn Trust and the Minstrel Trust.

Dukanovic familyPARADISE PAPERS

FORMER LEADER’S SISTER, MONTENEGRO

Ana Djukanovic

Djukanovic was a shareholder of Ranin Ltd., a company registered in Malta in 2012, the year Djukanovic’s brother was most recently re-elected prime minister.

Related to  Montenegro Malta
Mudhar ghassan shawkat PARADISE PAPERS

FORMER MEMBER OF PARLIAMENT, IRAQ

Mudhar Ghassan Shawkat

According to 2008 confidential emails, the lawyer representing Shawkat and his son, Ali, asked Appleby to hold in escrow about $140 million, the proceeds of the sale of the Shawkats’ properties.

Related to  Iraq British Virgin Islands
Prigodsky antonPARADISE PAPERS

FORMER MEMBER OF PARLIAMENT, UKRAINE

Anton Prigodsky

Prigodsky is listed as the sole shareholder of TUC Ltd., a company registered in Malta in 2013, the principal activity of which is to “carry out shipping activities.”

Related to  Ukraine Malta
Kosgei sallyPARADISE PAPERS

FORMER MINISTER OF AGRICULTURE, KENYA

Sally Kosgei

Kosgei owned Zonrisa Ltd., a Mauritius company previously registered in the Isle of Man under the name Aisha Ltd. Zonrisa owned an apartment in central London near Harrods department store.

Related to  Kenya Mauritius Isle of Man
Ablyazov mukhtarPARADISE PAPERS

FORMER MINISTER OF ENERGY AND TRADE, KAZAKHSTAN

Mukhtar Ablyazov

Ablyazov owned CFJ Star Trust, which was set up in the Cayman Islands in 2007, with a brother-in-law, Syrym Shalabayev. Shalabayev was also accused of involvement in the alleged BTA.

Related to  Kazakhstan Russia Cayman Islands
Mynbayev sauatPARADISE PAPERS

FORMER MINISTER OF OIL AND GAS, KAZAKHSTAN

Sauat Mukhametbayevich Mynbayev

Mynbayev, recorded as a “politically exposed person” in Appleby’s client database, has been a shareholder in Meridian Capital Ltd. since its incorporation in Bermuda in 2002.

Related to  Kazakhstan Russia Bermuda
Gertz manero alejandroPARADISE PAPERS

FORMER NATIONAL SECURITY SECRETARY, MEXICO

Alejandro Gertz Manero

Gertz was vice president of Jano Ltd., a personal investment company incorporated in the Cayman Islands for “tax purposes,” according to Appleby records.

Related to  Mexico Cayman Islands
Mahama familyPARADISE PAPERS

FORMER PRESIDENT’S BROTHER, GHANA

Ibrahim Mahama

In 2013, representatives of Mahama and his contracting company Engineers and Planners Company Limited contacted Appleby about creating two offshore companies in the Isle of Man.

Related to  Ghana Isle of Man
Suharto familyPARADISE PAPERS

FORMER PRESIDENT’S CHILDREN, INDONESIA

Tommy and Mamiek Suharto

Tommy Suharto, who currently heads the Humpuss Group, was a director and chairman of the board of Asia Market Investments Ltd., a company registered in Bermuda in 1997.

Related to  Indonesia Bermuda
Figueres jose maria PARADISE PAPERS

FORMER PRESIDENT, COSTA RICA AND FORMER CEO, WEF

José María Figueres

In 2001 and 2002, during his time with WEF, Figueres sat on the board of directors of Energia Global International Ltd., a renewable-energy company incorporated in Bermuda in 1997.

Related to  Costa Rica Bermuda Italy
Jean chretienPARADISE PAPERS

FORMER PRIME MINISTER, CANADA

Jean Chrétien

Bermuda-registered Madagascar Oil Limited awarded options to Chretien in July 2007 as a consulting fee, according to documents in the Appleby files. Madagascar Oil was formed to explore and drill.

Related to  Canada Madagascar Mauritius
Martin paulPARADISE PAPERS

FORMER PRIME MINISTER, CANADA

Paul Martin

In 1991, CSL Self-Unloader Investments Ltd., part of the CSL Group, was registered in Bermuda. It was created to hold the shares of two Barbadian corporations involved in a leaseback.

Related to  Canada Bermuda
Mulroney brianPARADISE PAPERS

FORMER PRIME MINISTER, CANADA

Brian Mulroney

Mulroney is listed in Appleby’s files as a director between 2004 and 2009 of Said Holdings Limited, a Bermuda company controlled by controversial Syrian-Saudi businessman Wafic Said.

Related to  Canada Bermuda
Hatoyama yukioPARADISE PAPERS

FORMER PRIME MINISTER, JAPAN

Yukio Hatoyama

In March 2013 Hatoyama was appointed honorary chairman and senior consultant of Hoifu Energy Group Ltd., an oil and gas exploration and production company incorporated in Bermuda in 2000.

 

Related to  Japan Bermuda
Shaukat aziz PARADISE PAPERS

FORMER PRIME MINISTER, PAKISTAN

Shaukat Aziz

Aziz, who worked for Citibank before starting his career as a politician, was one of the shareholders and directors of Bahamas-registered Cititrust Limited from 1997 to 1999.

Related to  Pakistan Bermuda Bahamas
Pritzker pennyPARADISE PAPERS

FORMER SECRETARY OF COMMERCE, U.S.

Penny Pritzker

On Dec. 7, 2011, a tax accountant associated with the Pritzker family provided Appleby with a copy of Penny Pritzker’s passport to confirm her identity to enable transactions involving offshore.

Related to  United States Bermuda
Meyer sassoon jamesPARADISE PAPERS

FORMER TREASURY COMMERCIAL SECRETARY, U.K.

James Meyer Sassoon

Leaked documents from Appleby show that Sassoon and several family members have been beneficiaries of a Cayman Island trust fund called the DCR Herschorn Settlement, established by Sassoon’s grandmother decades ago.

Related to  United Kingdom Bahamas
Quintanilla schmidt carlosPARADISE PAPERS

FORMER VICE PRESIDENT, EL SALVADOR

Carlos Quintanilla Schmidt

Quintanilla Schmidt is a director and a board member of Fusades Ltd., which was incorporated as a charitable organization in Bermuda in 2008.

Related to  El Salvador Bermuda
Guoga antanasPARADISE PAPERS

MEMBER OF EUROPEAN PARLIAMENT, LITHUANIA

Antanas Guoga

Guoga is a founder and former shareholder of iBus Media Ltd., a gambling news publisher on the Isle of Man. Appleby data show that another shareholder is Mark Scheinberg.

Related to  Lithuania Isle of Man Malta
Sinha rkPARADISE PAPERS

MEMBER OF PARLIAMENT, INDIA

Ravindra Kishore (RK) Sinha

Sinha is a minority shareholder and director of SIS Asia Pacific Holdings Ltd., a subsidiary of Security and Intelligence Services, registered in Malta in 2008.

Related to  India Malta
 jayant sinha. PARADISE PAPERS

MINISTER OF CIVIL AVIATION, INDIA

Jayant Sinha

In 2010, acting as an Omidyar Network representative, Sinha was appointed to the board of directors of D.Light Design, a Californian solar power company that received $5.5 million.

Related to  India Cayman Islands
Atamkulov beitbutPARADISE PAPERS

MINISTER OF DEFENSE AND AEROSPACE INDUSTRY, KAZAKHSTAN

Beibut Atamkulov

Atamkulov is a director of the Maltese company Centraz Finance Ltd., established in 1998. In October 2017 the company was listed as active. Other directors include Atamkulov’s brother, Yerlan Atamkulov.

Related to  Kazakhstan Russia Malta
Meirelles henriquePARADISE PAPERS

MINISTER OF FINANCE, BRAZIL

Henrique de Campos Meirelles

Meirelles created the Sabedoria Foundation with Appleby in Bermuda in December 2002 “specifically for charitable purposes.” While the foundation was active during Meirelles’ tenure as president of Brazil’s central bank it was used for commercial purposes.

Related to  Brazil Bermuda
Hichilema sammyPARADISE PAPERS

OPPOSITION LEADER, ZAMBIA

Hakainde Sammy Hichilema
Hichilema became a director of a Bermuda company, AfNat Resources Ltd., in March 2006, and he resigned that August, according to Appleby’s records. AfNat Resources was incorporated in 2005.
Related to  Zambia Bermuda Canada
Subianto prabowoPARADISE PAPERS

OPPOSITION PARTY LEADER, INDONESIA

Prabowo Subianto

Prabowo was director and deputy chairman of Bermuda-registered Nusantara Energy Resources. The company registered in 2001 was listed as a “bad debtor,” according to Appleby’s records.

Related to  Indonesia Bermuda Singapore
Saraki bukolaPARADISE PAPERS

PRESIDENT OF SENATE, NIGERIA

Bukola Saraki

Saraki was director and a shareholder of Tenia Ltd., a company established in the Cayman Islands in April 2001. Appleby’s records describe Tenia Ltd. as a “holding company.”

Related to  Nigeria Cayman Islands
Assad familyPARADISE PAPERS

PRESIDENT’S COUSIN, SYRIA

Rami Makhlouf

Makhlouf was a shareholder in four Lebanese companies created between 2001 and 2003, before Syrian troops officially withdrew from Lebanon in 2005 after 29 years of military occupation.

Related to  Syria Lebanon
Santos juan manuelPARADISE PAPERS

PRESIDENT, COLOMBIA

Juan Manuel Santos

Files from the Barbados corporate registry show Santos listed as a director of Global Tuition & Education Insurance Corp., a tax-exempt insurance company , until May 2001.

Related to
Sirleaf j ellenPARADISE PAPERS

PRESIDENT, LIBERIA

Ellen Johnson Sirleaf

Johnson Sirleaf was listed as a director of the Bermuda company Songhai Financial Holdings Ltd. a subsidiary of Databank’s finance, fund management and investment company Databank Brokerage Ltd.

Related to  Liberia Ghana Bermuda
Yildirim familyPARADISE PAPERS

PRIME MINISTER’S SONS, TURKEY

Erkam and Bulent Yildirim

The Yildirim brothers are sole shareholders of two companies registered in Malta. The first, Hawke Bay Marine Co. Ltd, was set up in April 2004.

Related to  Turkey Malta
Queen noorPARADISE PAPERS

QUEEN, JORDAN

Noor al-Hussein

Queen Noor – sometimes referred to as “Mrs. Jordan” or “Mrs. Brown” in Appleby’s database – is the beneficiary of two trusts registered in Jersey, according to a document.

Related to  Jordan United States Jersey
Queen ii PARADISE PAPERS

QUEEN, UNITED KINGDOM

Queen Elizabeth II

In 2005, the Duchy of Lancaster, Queen Elizabeth II’s private estate and portfolio, invested $7.5 million in Dover Street VI Cayman Fund LP, according to files from the offshore law office.

Related to  United Kingdom Cayman Islands
Ross wilburPARADISE PAPERS

SECRETARY OF COMMERCE, U.S.

Wilbur Louis Ross, Jr.

Ross, a billionaire Wall Street investor known for buying distressed companies, was a major client of Appleby, which administered more than 50 companies and partnerships.

Related to  United States Cayman Islands
Tillerson rexPARADISE PAPERS

SECRETARY OF STATE, U.S.

Rex Tillerson

Tillerson was a director of Marib Upstream Services Co., a Bermuda-based company created to conduct oil and gas operations in Yemen’s Marib-Al-Jawf basin. Tillerson joined the company’s board in March.

Related to  United States Bermuda Yemen
Valeriy voshchevskyPARADISE PAPERS

VICE PRIME MINISTER, UKRAINE

Valeriy Voshchevsky

Voshchevsky is listed in Malta’s register of companies as one of only two shareholders and directors of Marfa Holding Ltd., along with Maltese citizen Marvic Borg.

Related to  Ukraine Malta
M macriPANAMA PAPERS

PRESIDENT OF ARGENTINA

Mauricio Macri
Macri, his father Francisco and brother Mariano were directors of Fleg Trading Ltd, incorporated in the Bahamas in 1998 and dissolved in January 2009,
B ivanishviliPANAMA PAPERS

FORMER PRIME MINISTER OF GEORGIA

Bidzina Ivanishvili
Bidzina Ivanishvili was owner of Lynden Management Ltd., a company based in the British Virgin Islands. In 2011, the BVI Financial Investigation Agency asked Mossack Fonseca for information.
Related to  Georgia
S d gunnlaugssonPANAMA PAPERS

ICELAND’S PRIME MINISTER

Sigmundur Davíð Gunnlaugsson
Gunnlaugsson and Pálsdóttir owned a British Virgin Islands shell company called Wintris Inc., which held nearly $4 million in bonds in the three major Icelandic banks.
Related to  Iceland Luxembourg British Virgin Islands
A allawiPANAMA PAPERS

EX-PRIME MINISTER OF IRAQ

Ayad Allawi
Mossack Fonseca supplied his 1985 Panama-registered company I.M.F. Holdings Inc. with people who stood in for Allawi as directors. He was listed as the sole shareholder in 2000.
A abu al raghebPANAMA PAPERS

FORMER PRIME MINISTER OF JORDAN

Ali Abu al-Ragheb
In July 2003, just months before he resigned as prime minister, Ali Abu al-Ragheb and his wife Yusra became directors of the British Virgin Islands company Jaar Investment Ltd.
H al thaniPANAMA PAPERS

FORMER PRIME MINISTER OF QATAR

Hamad bin Jassim bin Jaber Al Thani
In 2002 , Hamad bin Jassim bin Jaber Al Thani acquired a company in the British Virgin Islands and three additional companies in the Bahamas.
Related to  Qatar
A thaniPANAMA PAPERS

FORMER EMIR OF QATAR

Hamad bin Khalifa Al Thani
In March 2014, less than a year after Al Thani resigned as Qatar’s ruler, a Luxembourg lawyer contacted Mossack Fonseca to convey Al Thani’s interest in buying an off-the-shelf company.
Related to  Qatar
King al saudPANAMA PAPERS

KING OF SAUDI ARABIA

Salman bin Abdulaziz bin Abdulrahman Al Saud
King Salman held an unspecific role in Luxembourg company Safason Corporation SPF S.A., which was the shareholder of Verse Development Corporation, incorporated in the British Virgin Islands in 1999.
Related to  Saudi Arabia
A mirghaniPANAMA PAPERS

FORMER PRESIDENT OF SUDAN

Ahmad Ali al-Mirghani
Al-Mirghani was the owner of the British Virgin Islands company Orange Star Corporation, created in 1995. That same year, Orange Star Corporation purchased a long lease of an apartment.
Related to  Sudan
A nahyanPANAMA PAPERS

UAE PRESIDENT, ABU DHABI EMIR

Khalifa bin Zayed bin Sultan Al Nahyan
Sheikh Khalifa was the beneficial owner of at least 30 companies established in the British Virgin Islands by Mossack Fonseca, through which he held commercial and residential properties.
Related to  United Arab Emirates
P lazarenkoPANAMA PAPERS

CONVICTED FORMER UKRAINE PRIME MINISTER

Pavlo Lazarenko
Lazarenko and his offshore firms have been a target of law enforcement investigations, going back to 1998, when British Virgin Islands police served three search warrants on Mossack Fonseca.
Related to  Ukraine
P poroshenkoPANAMA PAPERS

PRESIDENT OF UKRAINE

Petro Poroshenko
In August 2014, as Russian troops rolled into Eastern Ukraine, Poroshenko became the sole shareholder of Prime Asset Partners Limited, which Mossack Fonseca set up in the British Virgin Islands.
Related to  Ukraine
Aliyeva storyPANAMA PAPERS

AZERBAIJAN’S FIRST FAMILY

Prime Minister Ilham Aliyev’s wife, children and sister
In 2005, President Aliyev’s wife, Mehriban Aliyeva, was named as one of two managers of the Panamanian UF Universe Foundation, incorporated in 2003.
Related to  Azerbaijan
BatboldPANAMA PAPERS

FORMER PRIME MINISTER OF MONGOLIA

Sükhbaataryn Batbold
In November 2003 — when he was deputy foreign minister — Batbold became a shareholder of Batu Mining Limited, an offshore company created in the British Virgin Islands.
Related to  Mongolia
TurnbullPANAMA PAPERS

AUSTRALIA’S PRIME MINISTER

Malcolm Turnbull
Turnbull was listed as a director of Star Technology Systems Limited, a British Virgin Islands company, in December 1993. The company, was set up by Mossack Fonseca.
Related to  Australia
Jiagui storyPANAMA PAPERS

BROTHER IN LAW OF CHINA PRESIDENT

Deng Jiagui
In 2004, Deng Jiagui, the brother-in-law of China’s current President Xi Jinping, acquired a company in the British Virgin Islands called Supreme Victory Enterprises Ltd and was the sole director.
Related to  China
Xiaolin storyPANAMA PAPERS

DAUGHTER OF FORMER CHINESE PREMIER

Li Xiaolin
Li Xiaolin and her husband Liu Zhiyuan were the beneficial owners of “Fondation Silo,” a Lichtenstein foundation that was the sole shareholder of “Cofic Investments Ltd.”
Related to  China
Rotenberg storyPANAMA PAPERS

CHILDHOOD FRIENDS OF RUSSIAN PRESIDENT PUTIN

Arkady and Boris Rotenberg
Arkady and Boris Rotenberg were owners of at least seven companies registered in the British Virgin Islands, six with the help of Markom Management.
Related to  Russia Finland Switzerland
Roldugin storyPANAMA PAPERS

CLOSE FRIEND OF RUSSIAN PRESIDENT VLADIMIR PUTIN

Sergey Roldugin
Sergey Roldugin was an owner of three offshore companies: Sonnette Overseas, International Media Overseas and Raytar Limited. St. Petersburg-based Bank Rossiya, which the U.S government described as Russia’s “personal bank.
Related to  Russia Switzerland
Makhlouf storyPANAMA PAPERS

COUSINS OF SYRIAN PRESIDENT BASHAR ASSAD

Rami and Hafez Makhlouf
In 1998 Rami Makhlouf used Polter Investments Inc. to invest in Syrian telecommunications with Jordanian investors. In 2002, Makhlouf co-founded Syriatel, a Syrian mobile telecom company.
Related to  Syria
Cameron storyPANAMA PAPERS

FATHER OF BRITISH PRIME MINISTER

Ian Cameron
Cameron helped create and develop Blairmore Holdings Inc. in Panama in 1982 and was involved in the investment fund until his 2010 death.
Related to  United Kingdom
Mubarak storyPANAMA PAPERS

SON OF FORMER EGYPTIAN PRESIDENT

Alaa Mubarak
Alaa Mubarak owned the British Virgin Islands firm Pan World Investments Inc., managed by Credit Suisse. In 2011, the year in which his father resigned the Egyptian presidency.
Related to  Egypt
Majidi storyPANAMA PAPERS

PERSONAL SECRETARY TO THE KING OF MOROCCO

Mounir Majidi
In March 2006, Mounir Majidi received power of attorney privileges for SMCD Limited, which was incorporated in the British Virgin Islands in 2005.
Related to  Morocco
Sharif storyPANAMA PAPERS

CHILDREN OF PAKISTAN’S PRIME MINISTER

Mariam Safdar, Hasan and Hussain Nawaz Sharif
Three children of former and current Pakistan’s Prime Minister Nawaz Sharif – Mariam, Hasan and Hussain– were owners or had the right to authorize transactions for several companies.
Related to  Pakistan United Kingdom
Kufuor storyPANAMA PAPERS

SON OF GHANA’S FORMER PRESIDENT

John Addo Kufuor
In early 2001, shortly after the start of his father’s first presidential term, Kufuor appointed Mossack Fonseca to manage The Excel 2000 Trust.
Related to  Ghana
Nazifuddin storyPANAMA PAPERS

SON OF MALAYSIA’S PRIME MINISTER

Mohd Nazifuddin bin Mohd Najib
In 2009 Nazifuddin became one of the two directors of Jay Marriot International Ltd., which Mossack Fonseca registered in the British Virgin Islands. The other director was Ch’ng Soon Sen.
Related to  Malaysia
Munoz storyPANAMA PAPERS

AIDE TO FORMER ARGENTINE PRESIDENTS KIRCHNER

Daniel Muñoz
Muñoz and his wife were linked to Gold Black Limited, a company incorporated in the British Virgin Islands in 2010 to invest in U.S. real estate.
Related to  Argentina
Hinojosa storyPANAMA PAPERS

“FAVORITE CONTRACTOR” OF MEXICO’S PRESIDENT

Juan Armando Hinojosa
Throughout the summer and fall of 2015, not long after the controversy over the Casa Blanca, Mossack Fonseca helped Hinojosa create three trusts to take over accounts worth approximately $100 million.
Related to  Mexico
Borbon storyPANAMA PAPERS

FORMER KING OF SPAIN’S SISTER

Pilar de Borbón
In August 1974, Pilar de Borbón became president and director of the Panama-registered company Delantera Financiera SA.
Related to  Spain
Ametchi storyPANAMA PAPERS

ASSOCIATE OF COTE D’IVOIRE’S FORMER PRESIDENT

Jean-Claude N’Da Ametchi
Cadley House Ltd. was registered in the Seychelles in 2006. Although the company was at first held through so-called bearer shares, which do not list an offshore company’s owner. the true ownership was unveiled.
Related to  Côte d’Ivoire
Zuma storyPANAMA PAPERS

NEPHEW OF SOUTH AFRICAN PRESIDENT

Clive Khulubuse Zuma
Zuma was authorized to represent Caprikat Limited, one of two offshore companies that controversially acquired oil fields in the Democratic Republic of Congo.
Related to  South Africa
Toure storyPANAMA PAPERS

WIDOW OF GUINEA’S FORMER DICTATOR

Mamadie Touré
Touré was granted the power of attorney to Matinda Partners and Co. Ltd, a British Virgin Islands company, in November 2006.
Related to  Guinea
M mustafaPANAMA PAPERS

CONFIDANT TO PALESTINIAN AUTHORITY PRESIDENT

Mohammad Mustafa
Mustafa has been a director of the Arab Palestinian Investment (Holding) Company Ltd. (APIC Holding) since March 2006.
Related to  Palestine Jordan
P delgadoPANAMA PAPERS

FORMER GOVERNOR OF ECUADOR’S CENTRAL BANK

Pedro Delgado
Over the course of 2012, Mossack Fonseca client Austrobank Panama S.A., a subsidiary bank of Grupo Eljuri, one of the largest business conglomerates in Ecuador, processed a mortgage loan on behalf of Delgado.
Related to  Ecuador
S papastavrouPANAMA PAPERS

ADVISED FORMER GREEK PRIME MINISTER

Stavros Papastavrou
From 2005 to 2014 Papastavrou was a member of the councils of the Panamanian foundations Green Shamrock Foundation and Diman Foundation. In 2006, he became the deputy chairman of Aisios.
Related to  Greece
J kyunguPANAMA PAPERS

MEMBER, DRC PARLIAMENT

Jaynet Désirée Kabila Kyungu
Keratsu Holding Limited was incorporated in Niue on June 19, 2001, a few months after Kabila’s brother became president of the Democratic Republic of the Congo.
Related to  DR Congo
Aliyev storyPANAMA PAPERS

FORMER DEPUTY MAYOR OF KAZAKHSTAN CAPITAL

Nurali Aliyev
In June 2008 Aliyev became a shareholder of Baltimore Alliance Inc. Based in the British Virgin Islands, the company was inactivated in 2014.
Related to  Kazakhstan
R francoliniPANAMA PAPERS

HEADED PANAMA STATE OWNED BANK

Riccardo Francolini
In January 2015, Mossack Fonseca resigned as the agent for two offshore companies owned by Francolini because the Panamanian law firm considered him a politically exposed person.
Related to  Panama
C almeydaPANAMA PAPERS

FORMER HEAD OF PERUVIAN INTELLIGENCE

César Almeyda
In 2004 employees of Mossack Fonseca realized via a newspaper article that César Almeyda was a public official working for Peruvian President Alejandro Toledo.
Related to  Peru
A bouchouarebPANAMA PAPERS

ALGERIA’S MINISTER OF INDUSTRY AND MINES

Abdeslam Bouchouareb
Abdeslam Bouchouareb has been the sole owner of the Panamanian company Royal Arrival Corp., which was created in April 2015, since July 2015 .
Related to  Algeria
J botelhoPANAMA PAPERS

ANGOLAS MINISTER OF PETROLEUM

José Maria Botelho de Vasconcelos
On 6 March 2002, when Jose Maria Botelho de Vasconcelos was minister of petroleum for the first time, he was named one of two individuals who had power of attorney.
Related to  Angola
N grindettiPANAMA PAPERS

FORMER BUENOS AIRES FINANCE MINISTER

Néstor Grindetti
From July 2010 to June 2013, Grindetti had power of attorney for Mercier International SA, incorporated in Panama in 2010, to handle company funds deposited with Swiss private bank Clariden.
Related to  Argentina
A vathanaPANAMA PAPERS

CAMBODIA’S MINISTER OF JUSTICE

Ang Vong Vathana
In May 2007, as Vathana celebrated his third anniversary as minister, he became one of five shareholders of the British Virgin Islands company RCD International Limited.
Related to  Cambodia
J cahuzacPANAMA PAPERS

FORMER GOVERNMENT MINISTER IN FRANCE

Jérôme Cahuzac
Jérôme Cahuzac was the owner of a Seychelles company, Cerman Group Limited, incorporated in 2009 and connected to a bank account.
Related to  France
B benediktssonPANAMA PAPERS

ICELAND’S MINISTER OF FINANCE

Bjarni Benediktsson
Benediktsson and two Icelandic businessmen owned a Seychelles shell company called Falson & Co, which was purchased through the Luxembourg branch of the Icelandic bank Landsbanki in 2005.
Related to  Iceland
O nordalPANAMA PAPERS

ICELAND’S INTERIOR MINISTER

Ólöf Nordal
Ólöf Nordal and her husband, Tómas Már Sigurdsson, a senior executive with American aluminum company Alcoa, controlled Dooley Securities SA when they obtained power of attorney privileges in November 2006.
Related to  Iceland
K mizziPANAMA PAPERS

MALTA’S MINISTER OF ENERGY AND HEALTH

Konrad Mizzi
In July 2013, four months after Mizzi joined the Maltese government, an accounting firm in Malta bought several Panamanian companies from Mossack Fonseca, including Hearnville Inc. In June 2015,
Related to  Malta
J lyraPANAMA PAPERS

ONCE BRAZIL’S RICHEST MEMBER OF PARLIAMENT

João Lyra
In 2009, Lyra was granted a power of attorney for Refill Trading Corp. The company was incorporated in Panama in January 2009 and remained active in March 2016.
Related to  Brazil
G chiribogaPANAMA PAPERS

LONG-TIME, HIGH-RANKING ECUADORAN OFFICIAL

Galo Chiriboga
In 1999, Chiriboga, then a lawyer in private practice, was hired to collect a debt from a couple who owned a house in the exclusive residential area of La Viña.
Related to  Ecuador
Z horvathPANAMA PAPERS

FORMER MEMBER HUNGARIAN ASSEMBLY

Zsolt Horváth
In October 2013, when he was still a member of the National Assembly, Zsolt Horváth became director of Excelle Media International Ltd.
Related to  Hungary
K rawalPANAMA PAPERS

DEPUTY CHIEF JUSTICE OF KENYA’S SUPREME COURT

Kalpana Rawal
Rawal and her husband were directors of two companies based in the British Virgin Islands, prior to her joining the nation’s Supreme Court.
Related to  Kenya India United Kingdom
P piskorskiPANAMA PAPERS

FORMER WARSAW MAYOR; FORMER MEMBER EU PARLIAMENT

Paweł Piskorski
In 2012 Paweł Piskorski acquired a Panamanian company, Stardale Management Inc, to “buy bonds of a Singapore company.” In 2013 he tried to open a bank account with FPB Bank.
Related to  Poland
A saudPANAMA PAPERS

SAUDI CROWN PRINCE

Mohammad bin Naif bin Abdulaziz Al-Saud
On Oct. 1, 2007, the Paris branch of Swiss bank UBS bought the Panamanian companies Alyneth Limited and Havelock Capital Corporation from Mossack Fonseca.
Related to  Saudi Arabia
P sharplesPANAMA PAPERS

BARONESS AND LIFETIME MEMBER OF U.K. PARLIAMENT

Pamela Sharples
In 1995, Pamela Sharples became the sole shareholder of Nunswell Investments Limited, a company based in the Bahamas that she used to make investments.
Related to  United Kingdom
M matesPANAMA PAPERS

MEMBER OF BRITISH PARLIAMENT

Michael Mates
Mates’ parliamentary financial disclosures listed him as chairman of Haylandale Limited from April 2005 to at least April 2010, when he stepped down from his parliamentary seat for the constituency..
Related to  United Kingdom
S manPANAMA PAPERS

VENEZUELAN OIL COMPANY EXECUTIVE

Jesús Villanueva
In March 2009, Mossack Fonseca Luxembourg helped to incorporate Blue Sea Enterprises Corp. in Panama. The main purpose of the company was handling offshore savings accumulated by Villanueva.
Related to  Venezuela
A ovallePANAMA PAPERS

CLOSE ASSOCIATE OF CHILEAN INTELLIGENCE AGENCY OFFICIAL

Alfredo Ovalle Rodríguez
In 2002, Alfredo Ovalle Rodriguez and Raimundo Langlois Vicuña were given a power of attorney for Sierra Leona SA, a Panamanian company created in 1987.
Related to  Chile
I kirbyPANAMA PAPERS

SENIOR JUDGE IN BOTSWANA

Ian Kirby
Kirby, president of Botswana’s Court of Appeal, was one of dozens of shareholders of seven British Virgin Islands companies.
Related to  Botswana
B itouaPANAMA PAPERS

HEAD OF NATIONAL OIL COMPANY

Bruno Jean-Richard Itoua
Bruno Jean-Richard Itoua had power of attorney to represent two offshore companies in 2004, while he was energy adviser to the President of the Republic of Congo.
Related to  Congo
J iboriPANAMA PAPERS

FORMER GOVERNOR OF NIGERIA’S DELTA STATE

James Ibori
Mossack Fonseca was the registered agent of four offshore companies connected to James Ibori, including Julex Foundation, of which Ibori and family members were beneficiaries.
Related to  Nigeria
E ndahiroPANAMA PAPERS

FORMER RWANDA INTELLIGENCE CHIEF

Emmanuel Ndahiro
Emmanuel Ndahiro became a director of British Virgin Islands company Debden Investments Limited in September 1998, the same year in which Ndahiro regularly appeared in international news as a spokesman.
Related to  Rwanda
S manPANAMA PAPERS

FORMER ZAMBIA AMBASSADOR TO THE UNITED STATES

Attan Shansonga
In 1998, Shansonga became a director of Starflight Ventures Limited, Stacey Investment Holdings Ltd and Debden Investments Limited. The activities of these companies were not revealed.
Related to  Zambia
V cruzPANAMA PAPERS

FORMER COMMANDER-IN-CHIEF, VENEZUELAN ARMED FORCES

Víctor Cruz Weffer
Records showed Cruz Weffer was the shareholder of Univers Investments Ltd., a company incorporated in Seychelles in 2007.
Related to  Venezuela
A kejriwalPANAMA PAPERS

FORMER HEAD DELHI BRANCH OF POLITICAL PARTY

Anurag Kejriwal
Kejriwal and his wife set up their first company in the British Virgin Islands in 2007. In 2008 and 2010, they restructured their assets and established two foundations in Panama.
Related to  India
Li storyPANAMA PAPERS

GRANDCHILD OF HIGH-RANKING CHINESE COMMUNIST OFFICIAL

Jasmine Li
When Jasmine Li was still a teenager and studying at Stanford University, she became the sole shareholder of Harvest Sun Trading Limited, a company that was incorporated in the British Virgin Islands.
Related to  China
Oliveira storyPANAMA PAPERS

LINKED TO SUSPECTED BRIBE PAID TO BRAZILIAN LEGISLATIVE LEADER

Idalécio de Oliveira
Idalécio de Oliveira owned a conglomerate he called the “Lusitania Group,” made up of 14 companies incorporated in the British Virgin Islands from 2003 to 2011, with interests in oil and other investments.
Related to  Brazil Portugal
Annan storyPANAMA PAPERS

SON OF FORMER UNITED NATIONS SECRETARY GENERAL

Kojo Annan
Kojo Annan was sole director of the Samoan company Sapphire Holding Ltd, originally incorporated in Niue in 2003, which he had used to buy an apartment in central London.
Related to  Ghana
Nicosia storyPANAMA PAPERS

CHARGED IN FRAUD ALONG WITH ITALIAN SENATOR

Giuseppe Donaldo Nicosia
Nicosia was the sole shareholder of the British Virgin Islands company Darion Trading Ltd, incorporated in May 2011. In November 2011, Nicosia, as an individual, sold two New York apartments.
Related to  Italy
Rosenthal storyPANAMA PAPERS

SON OF HONDURAN VICE PRESIDENT

César Rosenthal
Rosenthal was sole shareholder and president of Renton Management SA, incorporated in Panama in February 2014 to purchase an aircraft. In October 2015, Guatemalan prosecutors investigating drug trafficking confiscated properties.
Related to  Honduras
Gutierrez storyPANAMA PAPERS

BROTHER-IN-LAW OF BOGOTA’S MAYOR

Carlos Gutiérrez Robayo
From 2007 to 2014, Gutiérrez Robayo created a network of 12 offshore companies and three foundations in Panama and the British Virgin Islands handled by his firm Trenaco Colombia.
Related to  Colombia
Pouye storyPANAMA PAPERS

ARRESTED IN SENEGAL ALONGSIDE EX-MINISTER

Mamadou Pouye
Pouye first appeared in Mossack Fonseca’s files in October 2008, instructing the law firm to open a bank account for the Panama company Seabury Inc.
Related to  Senegal
Domecq storyPANAMA PAPERS

WIFE OF SPAIN’S AGRICULTURE MINISTER

Micaela Domecq Solís-Beaumont
Micaela Domecq Solís-Beaumont was empowered to approve transactions of Rinconada Investments Group SA, a Panama company registered in 2005.
Related to  Spain Belgium
Devillers storyPANAMA PAPERS

BUSINESS PARTNER OF CHINESE POLITICIAN’S WIFE

Patrick Henri Devillers
In September 2000, Devillers helped Gu Kailai, the wife of a high-ranking Chinese Communist Party official, incorporate Russell Properties S.A. in the British Virgin Islands.
Related to  China France

TOP SECRET – The Bahamas Offshore Companies unveiled

Data From
ASIA CONSTRUCTION CORPORATION LIMITED Bahamas Leaks
EURO LOGISTICS LIMITED Bahamas Leaks
EURO LEISURE LIMITED Bahamas Leaks
EURO DATA PROCUREMENT LIMITED Bahamas Leaks
STERLING INDUSTRIES LIMITED Bahamas Leaks
GENERAL COMMERCIAL ENTERPRISES LIMITED Bahamas Leaks
NEWARK INDUSTRIES LIMITED Bahamas Leaks
SUMMIT ENTERPRISES INC. Bahamas Leaks
ARMACO INTERNATIONAL LTD. Bahamas Leaks
EPEA INTERNATIONAL LTD. Bahamas Leaks
COWBEL LIMITED Bahamas Leaks
VAARING CONSULTING LIMITED Bahamas Leaks
RICHFIELD INTERNATIONAL LIMITED Bahamas Leaks
CHRISTOPHER & COMPANY LTD. Bahamas Leaks
ROZPUK INC. Bahamas Leaks
SPRINGFLOWER PROPERTIES LIMITED Bahamas Leaks
FIDUPUR LTD Bahamas Leaks
BELCAY LTD Bahamas Leaks
VERMALA ENTERPRISES LIMITED Bahamas Leaks
SETDCO ENGINEERING CORPORATION Bahamas Leaks
CROWN SEISURE INC. Bahamas Leaks
FUTURE TECHNOLOGY INC. Bahamas Leaks
BUCKINGHAM COMPUTER SERVICES LIMITED Bahamas Leaks
G.A.H. SECURITIES LIMITED Bahamas Leaks
BG BAHAMAS CORPORATION Bahamas Leaks
WORLDGLASS VENTURES LIMITED Bahamas Leaks
LIMARA TECHNOLOGY INC. Bahamas Leaks
PERFECT PROMOTIONS LIMITED Bahamas Leaks
ALPHA ELECTRONICS CORPORATION Bahamas Leaks
WESTBURY PROPERTIES LIMITED Bahamas Leaks
VAN DE DRUGHT INVESTMENTS LIMITED Bahamas Leaks
BLUE ATLANTA (INTERNATIONAL) LIMITED Bahamas Leaks
RENFREW S.A Bahamas Leaks
PERSONAL CONSULTING LIMITED Bahamas Leaks
G.T.S. LIMITED Bahamas Leaks
CBOT LIMITED Bahamas Leaks
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CIA released Bin Laden’s Secrets

In an effort to further enhance public understanding of al-Qa’ida, the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) on 1 November 2017 released additional materials recovered in the 2 May 2011 raid on Usama Bin Ladin’s compound in Abbottabad, Pakistan.

With the release of these materials, the information remaining in the collection that has not been released publicly includes materials that are protected by copyright; sensitive such that their release would directly damage efforts to keep the nation secure; pornography; malware; blank, corrupted, and duplicate files. The entire collection has been available to the US Intelligence Community and Department of Defense organizations for years.

The Office of the Director of National Intelligence (ODNI) previously released documents from the collection on 20 May 2015, 1 March 2016, and 19 January 2017 after an interagency review spearheaded by the CIA. The releases align with ODNI initiatives for increased transparency – consistent with national security prerogatives – and the 2014 Intelligence Authorization Act, which required the ODNI to conduct a review of the documents for release.

CIA’s 1 November 2017 release includes additional al-Qa’ida letters, videos, audio files, and communications, as well as routine family correspondence. As a result, it builds on the ODNI releases that provided material relevant to understanding the plans and workings of terrorist organizations. The material is posted in its original Arabic format and in as close to the original form as possible, modified only so the files cannot be edited.

All of the material, which includes audio, document, image, video, and software operating system files, can be found on the All Original Filessection of this page. To view material by category, refer to the Audio, Documents, Images, and Video pages. To view the material by the device from which it originated, refer to the Devices page. Lastly, to view Microsoft Office files of various ages and formats that CIA has converted to Portable Document Format (PDF) for ease of viewing, refer to the Converted Material page.

Follow this link to access CIA’s press release.

The files underwent interagency review, and an effort was made to remove copyrighted material. However, the files may still contain some copyrighted works. Further reproduction, distribution, public performance, or public display of any copyrighted work is generally prohibited without the permission of the copyright owner. Copyright owners may request the removal of their content by submitting a notice via mail to Central Intelligence Agency, Office of Public Affairs, Washington, DC, 20505; via fax to 571-204-3800; or via the contact button on the CIA.gov homepage.

A notice must include:

  • A sufficient description of the copyrighted content to locate and remove it;
  • The copyright owner’s contact information or that of an authorized agent;
  • A statement of good faith belief that the use of the content at issue is not permitted by the copyright owner, an authorized agent, or the law; and
  • A statement that the information in the notice is accurate, including that it is submitted by the copyright owner of the content at issue or an authorized agent.

Bin Ladin’s Journal

1 November 2017

In addition to the computer files and digital media recovered in the May 2011 raid on Usama Bin Ladin’s compound in Abbottabad, Pakistan, CIA recovered Bin Ladin’s journal. As part of the 1 November 2017 release, CIA made available photographs of the journal, which includes an entry the day before Bin Ladin’s death. Please note the photographs were taken in the urgent hours after the raid as the US Intelligence Community analysts reviewed the material in search of clues that would reveal ongoing al-Qa’ida plots, as well as the identities and locations of al-Qa’ida personnel, and other information of immediate importance.

Journal Download Links (118 MB): [pdf] [zip] [tgz]     [zip md5] [tgz md5]

File Downloads

The material in this file collection may contain content that is offensive and/or emotionally disturbing. This material may not be suitable for all ages. Please view it with discretion.
Prior to accessing this file collection, please understand that this material was seized from a terrorist organization. Out of an abundance of caution we took the site down to resolve technical issues associated with the initial posting – and to remove additional detected malware – but we cannot guarantee that all malware has been removed.
Prior to accessing this file collection, please note the large file sizes of some of the material.
File Types File Index File Bundles File Size MD5 Hash
All Original Files
Various File Index [zip] [tgz] 258 GB [zip md5] [tgz md5]
Original Files by Content Type
Audio File Index [zip] [tgz] 30 GB [zip md5] [tgz md5]
Documents File Index [zip] [tgz] 16 GB [zip md5] [tgz md5]
Images File Index [zip] [tgz] 7 GB [zip md5] [tgz md5]
Video File Index [zip] [tgz] 162 GB [zip md5] [tgz md5]
Original Files by Device
Device List
MS Office Files Converted to PDF
PDF File Index [zip] [tgz] 12 GB [zip md5] [tgz md5]

TOP SECRET – Restricted U.S. Army Space Operations Manual

FM 3-14 Army Space Operations

Page Count: 126 pages
Date: August 2014
Restriction: Distribution Restricted
Originating Organization: Department of the Army
File Type: pdf
File Size: 3,273,115 bytes
File Hash (SHA-256):974DC6FBBC72F7E6F39378AFC790CDEF36F74E7D26ABD07BCC42793CDDFCE037

Download File

FM 3-14, Army Space Operations, provides an overview of space operations in the Army and is consistent and compatible with joint doctrine. FM 3-14 links Army space operations doctrine to joint space operations doctrine as expressed in JP 3-14, Space Operations and other joint doctrinal publications. This FM establishes guidance for employing space and space-based systems and capabilities to support United States (U.S.) Army land warfighting dominance. It provides a general overview of overhead support to Army operations, reviews national guidance and direction, and outlines selected unique space-related Army capabilities. The doctrine in this manual documents Army thought for the best use of space capabilities. This manual also contains tactics and procedures outlining how to plan, integrate, and execute Army space operations.

Space is a warfighting domain with different characteristics from air, land, sea, and cyberspace domains. Space is identified as one of the Global Commons as defined in the National Military Strategy of the United States of America. Army space operations enable Army and joint warfighting, and use of space capabilities is an inherently joint venture. The need for the Army to accomplish space operations is firmly established in national and Service level policies. Moreover, this FM is rooted in Army operations and consistent with Joint doctrine. Space capabilities and the space domain provide a global perspective as satellites allow routine access to denied areas of the Earth.

The space environment is harsh and the distances involved are vast, but it offers unique advantages that make it worthwhile to overcome the adversities of the operational environment. To that end, the space environment continues to become more congested, contested, and competitive. The uses of space are many, applications vary, and space-enabled capabilities are constantly evolving. It is important that Soldiers continue to look to the future with responsiveness, adaptability, and flexibility toward how space enables the Army’s warfighting functions in the conduct of unified land operations.

Army space operations includes all aspects of the employment of specialized Army space forces but also the spectrum of activities associated to the planning, preparation, integration and execution support required to ensure synchronized and effective space-based capabilities from all sources are available to support dominant land operations as part of Unified Action. Army space operations are heavily influenced by understanding the constraints, limitations, and operational needs of the land component users with regard to those space-based capabilities.

The Army depends on space capabilities to enable and enhance unified land operations. Virtually every Army operation relies on space capabilities to some degree to enhance the effectiveness of combat forces. Space capabilities enable the Army to communicate, navigate, target the enemy, and protect forces.

The principles that successfully guide unified land operations are applicable to the space domain. The Army uses space-based capabilities to support its dominance in unified land operations. Space operations are critical to the range of military operations as many space capabilities are embedded in Army operations. The space mission areas form the framework for how space supports the Army warfighting functions, and operations conducted through decisive operations.

1-4. This FM is rooted in basic Army and joint doctrine that is characteristically progressive and evolving. Space is a warfighting domain with different characteristics from land, sea, air, and cyberspace domains. The Army depends on space operations to effectively execute unified land operations. Every Army warfighting function relies on space contributions to some degree to enhance the effectiveness of our combat forces. Space capabilities enable the Army to communicate, navigate, accurately target the enemy, protect, and sustain our forces.

1-5. The U.S. Army is one the largest consumers of space-based capabilities within Department of Defense (DOD). The Army depends on Army space forces (personnel, organizations, space and terrestrial systems, equipment, and facilities), to ensure full access to all current and future space capability in order to fight and survive on today’s area of operations. The Army must leverage the capabilities of space assets. Consistent with the inherent right of self-defense, the Army must deter others from interference and attack, defend our space systems, and contribute to the defense of multinational space systems. If deterrence fails, the Army must defeat efforts to attack its space assets. This must be done while operating in a global information environment against any threats. Consequently, the Army space capabilities must provide continuous, secure, global communications, space situational awareness, space control, and space force enhancement to Army and joint warfighters from strategic to tactical levels.

DOD SPACE POLICY

1-16. Department of Defense directive (DODD) 3100.10, Space Policy implements the National Space Policy and assigns responsibilities for space and space-related activities. This directive states the primary DOD goal is to provide operational space force capabilities to ensure the U.S. has the space power to achieve its national security objectives in accordance with the U.S. National Security Strategy. Additionally the U.S. National Military Strategy recognizes space as one of the global commons and notes that our ability to project power from the global commons may be at risk. The space domain is critical for Army operations, yet becoming increasingly more vulnerable to malicious actions that create a D3SOE. The space environment is continuously becoming more congested, contested, and competitive. Space capabilities and applications will be integrated into the strategy, doctrine, concepts of operations, education, exercises, and operations and contingency plans of U.S. military forces. DOD operational space force structure will be sufficiently robust, ready, secure, survivable, resilient, and interoperable.

OPERATING IN SPACE

1-33. Space is the ultimate high ground and gives land forces the advantage of a global, persistent perspective of the strategic, operational, and tactical situation. Space systems consist of satellites on orbit, ground stations, launch bases, and the communications links and capabilities. Space hosts communications transponders, observation posts for surveillance and reconnaissance, transmitters broadcasting location and exact time information, sensors for weather and other environmental data, and sensors that can warn of enemy actions.

1-34. Space is a domain like land, sea, air, and cyberspace within which military activities are conducted to achieve U.S. national security objectives. Space begins above the atmosphere of the Earth and extends infinitely outward. The U.S. does not formally recognize a lower limit to space. However, space is considered to be the region around the Earth with little atmosphere, where satellites are placed in orbit. Space operations are those enabling operations that create or present opportunities to employ space capabilities to enhance the warfighting potential of the U.S. military and multinational partners. Space operations are generally supported by satellites in orbits around the Earth. Space is interrelated with the other domains and properly integrating these complex functions with the other military activities is critical for successful operations.

1-35. The 1967 Outer Space Treaty, officially known as Treaty on Principles Governing the Activities of States in the Exploration and Use of Outer Space, Including the Moon and Other Celestial Bodies dictates satellites in orbit must be allowed free passage over countries. Nations cannot claim the space directly above them as their own, as they do with airspace. This allows the U.S., other countries, and commercial entities to orbit satellites that freely traverse or occupy positions while in space over other countries.

1-36. Space-based resources provide freedom of action, global reach, responsiveness, insights in an anti-access, area of denial arena, and are not constrained by geographic borders of otherwise geographically denied regions. Satellites are well suited for reconnaissance and surveillance, imagery, mapping, and intelligence operations because of the access they provide. However, operations in the space environment are bound by other constraints such as the laws of physics, international law, and policies that have a unique set of vulnerabilities.

DIRECTOR OF SPACE FORCES

2-14. A director of space forces (DIRSPACEFOR) is assigned to the commander, Air Force forces staff and serves as the senior space advisor to integrate space capabilities and effects. If the commander, Air Force forces or joint force air component commander is delegated SCA, the DIRSPACEFOR will normally execute SCA responsibilities on behalf of the commander, Air Force forces or joint force air component commander. While each combatant commander may have a DIRSPACEFOR, United States Central Command is the only combatant commander with a standing DIRSPACEFOR with a formal agreement to utilize an Army functional area 40 (FA40) space professional as the Deputy DIRSPACEFOR. When an Army FA40 is serving as the United States Central Command Deputy DIRSPACEFOR, the individual is assigned to USASMDC/ARSTRAT with duty at Air Force Central Command.

2-15. The DIRSPACEFOR is responsible for:

  • Integration of space force enhancement, space control operations, and planning in joint operations on behalf of the combined force air component commander when acting as SCA;
  • Oversee day-to-day functions of the DIRSPACEFOR staff and accomplish assigned duties of SCA;
  • Provide the combined force air component commander and key staff counsel and training in space operations;
  • Assist with planning and executing theater space operations and applying space capabilities throughout the joint targeting cycle;
  • Assist in coordinating tailored space support for operations throughout the area of responsibility;
  • Work directly for the combined force air component commander as special staff providing advice on space capabilities and employment;
  • Ensure continuity of operations, focus, operational stability, and unity of command with multiple rotations of joint space personnel across the area of responsibility;
  • Conduct deliberate planning for contingency operations and exercises, and validate process;
  • Provide reachback support for all forward deployed space forces from all Services in area of responsibility;
  • Interact with multiservice space professionals within the combined air and space operations center; and
  • Provide insight and participate in special technical operations planning, as required.

2-16. During larger standing operations and in crisis planning and execution, the theater SCA function is supported with appropriate manning for staff support based upon the nature of the pending contingency. The manpower and expertise requirements will be reflected in the final approved joint manning document for that headquarters along with an identification of a responsible Service to fill the position. In most cases where the SCA is delegated to the Commander, Air Force forces with an assigned DIRSPACEFOR to support those functions, the Deputy DIRSPACEFOR is normally sourced as an Army space officer, as established in operations. An Army Deputy DIRSPACEFOR supports all the joint functions of the DIRSPACEFOR, can represent specific land component space-related needs and issues to the theater SCA for resolution. An Army Deputy DIRSPACEFOR also acts as an intermediary between DIRSPACEFOR staff and Army SSEs, ARSSTs, ASCE, JTAGS detachments, space situational awareness planning teams (SSAPT), and space control detachments.

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