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SECRET – FBI Finds “Minimal Correlation” Between Suicide Vests Used in Middle East and Europe

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Images of suicide vests and belts from an FBI’s intelligence note released after the November 2013 .

An analysis of recent suicide bombings throughout the Middle East, Europe and Africa by the FBI Terrorism Explosive Device Analytical Center (TEDAC) that was released after the terrorist attacks in Paris, France last month states that “suicide vest and belt improvised explosive devices (IEDs) in the Middle Eastern, African, and European regions likely . . . have minimal correlation” and do not indicate tactical migration.

Following the attacks in Paris, which featured seven separate suicide bombings, media coverage has focused on the prominent use of suicide vests as indicative a tactical shift for the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant (ISIL).  Though there are past examples of suicide attacks inside Europe, such as the 2005 London bombings, the use of suicide vests in the Paris attacks has been said to represent an entirely new type of threat, a tactic once relegated to the battlefields of Iraq and Syria now appearing in European cities.  However, an External Intelligence Note issued by TEDAC on November 17 titled “Suicide Vest and Belt Improvised Explosive Device Tactics in the Middle Eastern, African, and European Regions Show Minimal Signs of Tactic Migration” and obtained by Public Intelligence presents a different view, attributing the tactical similarities to factors such as “available materials, training, and local or national counter-IED policies.”

While TEDAC would normally assume that “similarities between suicide vests and belts from different regions likely indicate common training or common IED facilitators,” the intelligence note states that these similarities “may be a product of independent open source research, thus resulting in a false link between devices and subjects.”  Moreover, the similarities may “indicate tactic or construction influences” based on the nature of the devices and access to required materials.  Similarities can include everything from “overall IED construction, wiring techniques, common explosives, initiators, switches, electronic diagrams, enhancements, and employment.”

When broadly examined, the types of “suicide vests and belt IEDs observed in each region” covered in the intelligence note “differ broadly in many characteristics, resulting in an inconclusive determination that the suicide vest and belt IEDs prevalent in any one area translate to tactic migration.”

A study by the Institute of National Security Studies found that there were approximately 370 suicide bombings in the Middle East region in 2014 claiming the lives of over 2,700 victims.  Iraq, Yemen, Lebanon and Libya all saw a significant increase in the use of the tactic over the previous year.  Prior to the attacks in Paris, suicide bombings in Europe have been primarily limited to Turkey and Russia.

Middle East Europe Africa
Common explosives used in suicide vests/belts triacetone triperoxide (TATP), trinitrotoluene (TNT), Semtex, C4, Research Development Formula X (RDX), and pentaerythritol tetranitrate (PETN) TNT and C4 RDX, Ammonium Nitrate, and Urea Nitrate

The intelligence note takes several quotes from an interview conducted by Der Spiegel with a captured ISIL leader named Abu Abdullah discussing the group’s target selection process and methods for constructing suicide vests.  He describes how he used “explosive fill removed from artillery shells for car bombs” and “drilled open the shells of anti-aircraft guns to construct suicide belts because he believed the effect of the powder was more intense.”  According to the interview, he would receive a potential bombers’ measurements in “advance from the leadership in order to be able to make a well-fitting belt” and “always had belts in different sizes prepared.”

Explosive vests in Yemen have also included similar design elements.  A suicide bomber tied to Al Qaeda in the Arabian Peninsula (AQAP) was killed in July 2015 by Houthi forces prior to detonating his vest, allowing for forensic analysis.  The device featured “dual grenade-pin detonators, a main charge wrapped with sheets of ball bearings, and detonation cord that was placed inside a pouch around the bomber’s waist.”

Similar to the Middle East, bombings in Turkey have often used either C4 or trinitrotoluene (TNT) in suicide vests.  Vests used in the Middle East often included other high-powered explosives such as Semtex or Research Development Formula X (RDX) or triacetone triperoxide (TATP), the explosive that was reportedly used in the vests detonated during the Paris attacks.

 

 

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Revealed – U.S. Secret Service Training Guide – Secret

Characteristics of the Armed Individual

Page Count: 6 pages
Date: 2010
Restriction: Distribution Restricted
Originating Organization: U.S. Secret Service
File Type: pdf
File Size: 134,573 bytes
File Hash (SHA-256):3892F3AD2C2ECF73A2ABF53CF1D22EA600662A83F98BDF236E2ADAE601059B61

Download File

When placing a subject under observation for the purpose of trying to determine whether or not that person is possibly armed, what is the first crucial trait that you as a Law Enforcement Officer should try to determine about that individual?

DETERMINE THEIR STRONG SIDE – Look for possible indicators such as Rings, Wristwatches, Writing,

Smoking, Lighting Cigarettes, Holding/Moving Objects, etc. to help determine a favored side.
An individual who carries a gun on their person will periodically touch that gun both consciously and unconsciously.

This is called a Security Feel.

LOOK FOR:
• Touching
• Feeling
• Adjustments
• Stiffer Arm

88% of the people in the U.S. are right handed. The majority of those right-handed people that carry handguns illegally carry them in the right front waist band, loose.

WHY
• They see it in the movies.
• It’s the “cool” thing to do.
• That is where it is the most secure and accessible

Body Movements
– conscious & unconscious (reasons/adjustments for touching, security feels, physical property of gun, when, why, how).
• Cause for slippage of weapon and when
• Stiffer arm on gun side
• Holding
• Bending
• Macho feeling
• Running (from crime, rain, traffic, bus, subways, cab, etc.)
• Leaning
• Sitting
• Reaching
• Crouching
• Turning from view for adjustment
• Pulling pants up, down
• Pulling clothing down
• Shorter arm & leg swing on gun side
• Protective turning of armed side
• Arm over center of body, etc.
• Turn and hold in crowds
• Looking down at gun
• Arm or part of arm holding snug
• Security hold with elbow on gun
• Getting in/out of vehicles

While walking or running (especially in the rain), you will notice a short or stiff arm swing and short leg stride. What are their actions when walking by person/persons, and streets/doorways, etc?

Vehicle Stops
• Look for a rising shoulder, or moving up to grab the weapon from the waistband.
• Bending over or shoulder dip to hide the weapon under a seat.

Clothing & Actions
– what features stand out, attract your attention, and arouse your suspicion.
• Clothing: Does the clothing fit the season?
• Does the clothing match?
• Is the clothing loose, or baggy?
• In cold weather, is the individuals coat unzipped or unbuttoned?
• Look for the individual wearing only one glove.
• When concealed in a jacket pocket, hood, or bag, gravity pulls that weight down – Firearms have WEIGHT
• Look for uneven dip in clothing or bags.
• Tailored in/worn out, etc.- build of subject
• Does shoes/boots match clothing (conditions)
• Does work outfits match conditions
• Pants, belts (no belt loops, but is wearing belt)
• Ponchos (wide arms, etc)
• Chains, straps, hats, etc.
• Socks (use elastic as ankle holster)
• Pockets
• Hoods and drawstrings
• Color combinations
• Gloves (one hand gloved, the other in their pocket)
• Outer garments (Are jacket, pants, shoes coordinated for dress/work/leisure?)**BULGES and certain body movements observed to discover the smallest/best concealed unholstered weapons.

Different ways guns are carried, and where they are possessed
• Waistband** (Front side, crook of back, etc.)
• Pants (Pockets, cuffs, etc.)
• Pockets (Pants, jackets, coats, etc.)
• Hats (Including hoods of sweatshirts, jackets, etc.)
• Underwear (Protective cups, etc.)
• Shoes and boots
• Bags (Hand, backpacks, pouches, shoulder)
• Radios, cameras, video recorders (all sizes)
• Grocery bags, boxes, shopping bags, etc.
• Hollow books, newspapers, cigarette packs & boxes
• Holsters (Bought, made, stolen-All types)
• Bikes & Motorcycles
• Vehicles
Confrontation tactics and apprehension
• Picking location – time, circumstances permit; where, why
• Single, multiple person stops
• Approach techniques
• Cover
• Prior knowledge of person you are approaching
• Firearm usage/ restraint/shooting tactics
• Pursuit of armed felons (auto/foot)
• Searches
• Surveillance of person/persons
• Vehicle stops and searches
• Conversation techniques with the person/persons during approach, search, questioning, and possibly processing
• Resistance by person/persons
• THINK about when you wear your gun off duty, and your actions (they are very similar).

Unveiled – Obama Protection 47

[Image]US President Barack Obama greets supporters are he arrives at a campaign event on July 14, 2012 at Centreville High School in Clifton, Virginia. Getty
[Image]U.S. President Barack Obama arrives at a campaign rally at Centreville High School in Clifton, Virginia, July 14, 2012. Obama travelled to Virginia on Saturday for campaign events. Reuters
[Image]President Barack Obama walks up a set of stairs during a campaign rally at Centreville High School in Clifton, Va. , a Washington suburb, on Saturday, July 14, 2012. AP
[Image]People hold signs protesting against U.S. President Barack Obama along Obama’s motorcade route on his way to a campaign rally at Centreville High School in Clifton, Virginia, July 14, 2012. Obama travelled to Virginia on Saturday for campaign events. Reuters
[Image]President Barack Obama laughs while campaigning under the pouring rain at the historic Walkerton Tavern & Gardens in Glen Allen, Va. , near Richmond Saturday, July 14, 2012. It is in the Congressional district represented by House Majority Leader Eric Cantor, R-Va. , a key county in a crucial swing state of the presidential election. AP
[Image]U.S. President Barack Obama greets supporters at the end of his ”A Vision for Virginia’s Middle Class” campaign event July 14, 2012 at Walkerton Tavern in Glen Allen, Virginia. On the last day of his two-day campaign across Virginia, Obama continue to discuss his plan to restore middle class security and urged Congress to act on extending tax cuts to middle class families. Getty
[Image]President Barack Obama campaigns during the pouring rain at the historic Walkerton Tavern & Gardens in Glen Allen, Va. , near Richmond, Saturday, July 14, 2012. AP
[Image]Protesters line an entrance route to a campaign event where President Barack Obama is scheduled to speak at the historic Walkerton Tavern & Gardens in Glen Allen, Va. , near Richmond Saturday, July 14, 2012. AP
[Image]Conservative local residents protest prior to U.S. President Barack Obama’s ”A Vision for Virginia’s Middle Class” campaign event July 14, 2012 at Walkerton Tavern in Glen Allen, Virginia. On the last day of his two-day campaign across Virginia, Obama continue to discuss his plan to restore middle class security and urged the Congress to act on extending tax cuts to middle class families. Getty
[Image]President Barack Obama removes his jacket upon his arrival at Washington Dulles International Airport in Chantilly, Va. , Saturday, July 14, 2012, for a campaign event in the vicinity. AP
[Image]US President Barack Obama boards his limousine after greeting well-wishers upon arrival July 14, 2012 at Richmond International Airport in Richmond, Virginia. Obama is in Virginia to attend campaign events. Getty
[Image]Secret Service members keep watch in front of Air Force One shortly before US President Barack Obama’s departure on July 14, 2012 at Richmond International Airport in Richmond, Virginia. Obama is in Virginia to attend campaign events. Getty
[Image]US President Barack Obama hold up a tomato during a stop at Berry’s Produce on July 14, 2012 in Mechanicsville, Virginia. Obama is campaigning in Virginia ahead of the November presidential election. Getty
[Image]President Barack Obama shakes hands as he arrives at the Richmond International Airport in Richmond, Va. , Saturday, July 14, 2012. AP
[Image]President Barack Obama greets the crowd after a campaign stop at the historic Fire Station No.1, in downtown Roanoke, Virginia, Friday, July 13, 2012. Obama traveled to southwest Virginia to discuss choice in this election between two fundamentally different visions on how to grow the economy, create middle-class jobs and pay down the debt. AP
[Image]President Barack Obama greets the crowd during a campaign stop at the historic Fire Station No.1, in downtown Roanoke, Va. , Friday, July 13, 2012. Obama traveled to southwest Virginia to discuss choice in this election between two fundamentally different visions on how to grow the economy, create middle-class jobs and pay down the debt. AP
[Image]President Barack Obama greets people after arriving at Roanoke Regional Airport in Roanoke, Va. , Friday, July 13, 2012. Obama is spending the day campaigning in Virginia. AP

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[Image]President Barack Obama greets people after arriving at Roanoke Regional Airport in Roanoke, Va. , Friday, July 13, 2012. Obama is spending the day campaigning in Virginia. AP
[Image]President Barack Obama arrives at the Roanoke Airport on Air Force One on the campaign trail, Friday, July 13, 2012 in Roanoke, Va. AP
[Image]President Barack Obama greets people after arriving at Roanoke Regional Airport in Roanoke, Va. , Friday, July 13, 2012. Obama is spending the day campaigning in Virginia. AP
[Image]President Barack Obama greets the crowd after speaking at a campaign event at Phoebus High School in Hampton, Va. , Friday, July 13, 2012. Obama is spending the day in Virginia campaigning. AP
[Image]President Barack Obama greets the crowd after speaking at a campaign event at Phoebus High School in Hampton, Va. , Friday, July 13, 2012. Obama is spending the day in Virginia campaigning. AP
[Image]President Barack Obama arrives to speak at a campaign event at Phoebus High School in Hampton, Va. , Friday, July 13, 2012. Obama is spending the day in Virginia campaigning. AP
[Image]U.S. President Barack Obama (C) greets supporters at the end of his ‘A Vision for Virginia’s Middle Class’ campaign event July 13, 2012 at Green Run High School in Virginia Beach, Virginia. Obama discussed his plan to restore middle class security and urged the Congress to act on extending tax cuts to middle class families. Getty
[Image]U.S. President Barack Obama (R) greets supporters at the end of his ‘A Vision for Virginia’s Middle Class’ campaign event July 13, 2012 at Green Run High School in Virginia Beach, Virginia. Obama discussed his plan to restore middle class security and urged the Congress to act on extending tax cuts to middle class families. Getty [Two Secret Service in “hands ready” position.
[Image]President Barack Obama reaches out to shake hands at a campaign event at Green Run High School in Virginia Beach, Va. , Friday, July 13, 2012. Obama is spending the day in Virginia campaigning. AP
[Image]President Barack Obama heads to his car after greeting people after arriving at Norfolk International Airport in Norfolk, Va. , Friday, July 13, 2012. AP
[Image]President Barack Obama is surrounded by secret service as he greets people after arriving at Norfolk International Airport in Norfolk, Va. , Friday, July 13, 2012. AP
[Image]President Barack Obama heads to his car after greeting people after arriving at Norfolk International Airport in Norfolk, Va. , Friday, July 13, 2012. AP
[Image]President Barack Obama meets with supporters after arriving aboard Air Force One at the Norfolk International Airport in Norfolk, Va. , Friday, July 13, 2012. AP
[Image]President Barack Obama meets with supporters after arriving aboard Air Force One at the Norfolk International Airport in Norfolk, Va. , Friday, July 13, 2012. AP
[Image]President Barack Obama walks to Air Force One at Andrews Air Force Base in Md. , Friday, July 13, 2012, enroute to Virginia for a series of campaign events. AP
[Image]Members of the media exit a house alongside US President Barack Obama’s SUV holding in the driveway as Obama meets with Jason McLaughlin, principal of Center Point-Urbana High School, his wife, Ali, an account manager for a document scanning company, and their 4-year-old son Cooper, on middle class tax cuts at their home in Cedar Rapids, Iowa, July 10, 2012. Getty
[Image]Secret Service agents guard the door of the home of Jason and Ali McLaughlin while President Barack Obama visits with them in Cedar Rapids, Iowa, Tuesday, July 10, 2012. AP
[Image]U.S. President Barack Obama arrives in Cedar Rapids, Iowa, July 10, 2012. Obama flew to Iowa for an event pushing for the extension of Bush-era tax cuts due to expire at the end of 2012. Reuters
[Image]President Barack Obama heads to his car after getting ice cream at Deb’s Ice Cream & Deli in Cedar Rapids, Iowa, Tuesday, July 10, 2012. AP