Unveiled – Military Journalists and War Correspondents From The USSR To Russia

By Françoise Daucé

In Russia as elsewhere, military journalists and war correspondents find themselves at the heart of the tensions between the discipline and confidentiality required in military matters and the independence and openness required by the media. Their task is to inform society and shape public opinion, but they are also bound by the rules of the armed forces1 in situations where their own safety is at stake and a war of information is often being waged alongside the war on the ground2. This tension is not particular to Russia3 but it is overt there perhaps more than in any other country. In the USSR, during wartime (whether the “Great Patriotic War” from 1941 or the Cold War until 1985), the constraints upon military journalists and war correspondents were severe, under the Main Political Directorate of the Soviet Army and Navy with its twofold responsibility for State censorship and Party ideological correctness. At a time when the media were called “means of mass information and propaganda”, what possible leeway did correspondents have between their “duty of self-restraint” and their “duty to speak up”? Under Gorbachev’s glasnost, starting in 1985, the coverage of military matters became a forum for expressing political criticism, whether by publicising the failures of the war in Afghanistan, bullying of new recruits, corruption among officers or the scandals of the nuclear deterrent. In the early 1990s, journalists put military discipline to one side in their work and devoted themselves to reporting on all the armed forces’ failings. Since the start of the new century, the authoritarian turn taken by the Russian government appears to have restored the priority of order, the “power vertical “and the “dictatorship of the law” both in the armed forces and the media, providing political control over media reporting on soldiers and war4.

5 C. Lemieux (dir), La subjectivité journalistique. Onze leçons sur le rôle de l’individualité dans l (…)

2What is the reality? What tensions are there in the particular task of military journalists? What compromises do they make? To answer these questions, this special report goes into the professional practices of journalists to reveal the trade-offs, stratagems and conflicts that make up their day-to-day work. The various articles describe people in action, professionals operating, journalists at work. This sociological approach, with people’s own opinions, transmitted directly or indirectly, shows both the extent of the constraints on their work and the degree of independence and subjectivity5 that exists in journalistic production. It outlines their participation in producing official discourse and their struggle to spell out alternative truths. Since the collapse of the USSR, the world of military journalists has been increasingly diverse and plural. Careers and backgrounds have broadened to include civilians, women, foreigners and non-specialists. They are committed in varying degrees to their jobs, which have been thrown open in ways that are politically, legally and technically complex. Even though there are indeed constraints, these are less the hierarchical, militarised type of the duty of self-restraint but more (neo-) liberalised in nature. This can be seen in the 2014 events in Ukraine, which have been particularly uncontrolled and dangerous for journalists on the ground. Our study of military journalism in the USSR and Russia provides an insight into the transformations within the Soviet and then Russian armed forces, the changes occurring in that country’s society and politics, the sociology of the media and journalism in Russia, and the contemporary world in general.

6 International Round Table. Military and War journalism from the USSR to Russia: Field Practices and (…)

3This special report comprises contributions that vary in form and content. There are duly verified scholarly articles and personal experiences of military journalists describing their ways of working. The report of a roundtable discussion in April 2014 in Moscow6 combines the views of journalists, historians and practitioners concerning the special features of military journalism. Book reviews remind the reader of how much research has been done in this area. Together the various sections offer new avenues for analysing military journalism in Russia.
Independence and subjectivity of war correspondents and military journalists

7 See Olga Pavlenko’s contribution to the April 2014 Round Table.

4Since the wars of the 19th century, particularly in the Crimea7, the history of military journalism has been marked by a gradual professionalization. An obviously male job until the end of the Cold War, military journalism and war reporting was done by officers and civilians, civil servants and writers, concerned to bear witness to the conflicts of their time. At the height of the Soviet 20th century, the drama of the Great Patriotic War featured the heroic figure of the war correspondent, whether international (such as Alexander Werth) or Soviet (Vasily Grossman). In the violence of the great clash between the Soviet and Nazi war machines, the reporting available shows how much independence and subjective freedom of expression journalists on the front could have. Nicolas Werth’s presentation of his father’s writings and career exemplifies the personal choices and commitments Alexander made on the Eastern Front. His articles were not so much the result of strategic constraints imposed by war as the account of a man fighting with the Soviet forces. In 1941-1945, war offered possibilities for journalistic expression that were perhaps greater than in later years, when the hierarchical and institutional apparatus was set up to control military journalism. After the victory, it was time to bureaucratise the army’s press section. The publications devoted to military matters during the Brezhnev years (Krasnaia Zvezda, the Soviet defence ministry’s daily newspaper, for example) showed this in their operations and content. Military journalists were trained by the army itself, as Ivan Chupin describes in his article on military journalists during the final years of the USSR, borne out by the journalist Nikolai Starodymov. The embargo on military information was clearly operating during the war in Afghanistan involving Soviet troops.

8 Concerning this weekly, see V. Solov’ev, “Stanovlenie nezavisimoi voennoi pechati v Rossii: opyt “N (…)

5As glasnost opened up reporting after 1985, military journalists became more diverse. The opening up and liberalisation of the Russian media world extended to military journalism. Censorship (Glavlit) disappeared. The former Soviet army newspapers did continue, working under the control of the defence ministry. They largely remained attached to the Soviet Army’s “Cold War” editorial line, as can be seen in Sophie Momzikoff’s article on Zarubezhnoe Voennoe Obozrenie. But journalists from these editorial offices seized the opportunity to criticise the armed forces as an institution and move into independent media at a time when their expert knowledge was valued. Civilian media developed their military coverage, written by correspondents and specialists. New publications devoted to military matters appeared (Nezavisimoe Voennoe Obozrenie in the mid-1990s, for example8). The amount of space given over to the armed forces became larger and more diverse. Personal accounts of the war in Afghanistan and the many conflicts that erupted in the post-Soviet zone (Chechnya, Moldova and Nagorno-Karabakh) were given pluralistic treatment in the press in the 1990s.

9 Iu. Zheglova, Fenomen “prikomandirovannoi” zhurnalistiki. In: Mikhail Pogorelyi, Ivan Safranchuk (e (…)

6Within this diversified environment, journalists made choices. Their careers reveal the tensions and controversies they encountered and the compromises they devised. Some Soviet military journalists escaped from the control of their former employers to join the civilian media (such as Aleksandr Golts). Others stayed put but altered their vision of the armed forces and modified their editorial line. These careers and practices became more diverse, and Ivan Chupin describes two conceptions of the work: one toeing the army line and the other critical and investigatory. In response, the military authorities attempted to keep control of these changes by sending their own journalists to write for civilian publications9. However, their control was losing its force. New professionals were appearing in the war journalist community. Foreign correspondents went out to operational areas in the former Soviet Union and established relations with Russian journalists (see the account by war photographer Yuri Tutov). These new arrangements raised the issue of the relations and exchanges between journalists of various origins and the specific constraints imposed on them. This period also saw women arriving in military journalism. Examples are Anna Politkovskaya covering the Chechnya War and Olga Allenova, a journalist on Kommersant, in the same theatre. This diversification brought plurality into the treatment of military information. In this issue of PIPSS, Allenova’s account shows how she shifted away from being a supporter of “restoring order” in Chechnya in the early 2000s as she saw the violence this entailed (see Amandine Regamey’s review of her book). Allenova describes her growing awareness of the criminal abuses of the anti-terrorist operation in Chechnya. The interview with Tutov reveals how he distanced himself from the interior ministry’s media and began to work more with international press agencies. These journalists displayed their independence of judgement in a changing military world. More recently, since the early 2000s, this independence has increased as a result of new information and communication technologies that extend the range of journalistic practice. Reduced technical constraints, miniaturisation of recording devices, and speed of transmission lead to faster circulation of information, including from war zones. The possibilities available to military journalists seem therefore to be widening.
Tensions and constraints at work

7But this diversification has aroused strong tensions. This could be seen at the round table discussion of military journalism held in April 2014 at the Russian State University for the Humanities (RGGU), Moscow, in partnership with the International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC). Andrei Raskin, journalism professor at the RGGU, listed the new difficulties facing military journalism at the present time. He said that untrained journalists are often sent to report on hostilities, showing great independence but at the risk of their personal safety. He expressed concern at the presence in operational theatres of independent journalists of uncertain status, given great freedom but little protection by their editorial managers. He also questioned women’s legitimacy to cover conflict: “War journalism as a whole is ‘not a place for women’ any way”, he said. Journalists’ independence, more diverse backgrounds and allegiance to the civilian community raise the question of their security in military theatres and arouse distrust from the professionals of military journalism.

10 A.-J. Bizimana, Au cœur du dispositif embedding: la surveillance des journalistes intégrés lors de (…)
11 H. Tumber, J. Palmer, Media at war. The Iraq crisis, London, Sage, 2004.

8In the Russian armed forces, this distrust has given rise to new communication strategies better suited to post-Soviet political and media reality. Raskin described a certain distrust in the armed forces towards independent journalists. But the military authorities are also aware of the need to work with journalists. More flexible types of constraint, often inspired by Western practice, are being tried out by the military institutions. Having “embedded” journalists during armed conflict makes it possible to control the transmission of information. Embedment enables journalists to be at the heart of events and broadcast authentic factual accounts of warfare but does raise the question of their surveillance10 and official exploitation of them at times of crisis11. The communication practice was developed by the Russian army during the Second Chechnya War from 1999 on. Journalists may even appreciate being enrolled in this way. Aleksandr Sladkov, a well-known Russian television presenter, said, “Embedded journalism is a good progressive way to regulate the links between civilians and the military. A large-scale example of embedded journalism would be in the Soviet Army, during World War II, when 280 operators were recording films”. This reference to the Great Patriotic War is used to justify current cooperation arrangements between the armed forces and journalists.

9The work of military journalists is regulated by new legislative codes. In the early 2010s, a large number of laws were passed to control the activities of newspapers, their editorial staff and the independent journalists who produce blogs (now deemed to be mass media if they have more than 3,000 hits a day). The role of Roskomnadzor (Federal Service for Supervision of Communications, Information Technology and Mass Media) in controlling media content has also been extended. Although direct institutional constraint in the form of censorship has disappeared, political control over military journalists has taken on a variety of new forms. “The laws regulating journalism in Russia are not that bad since they are inspired by French laws; however, in the past few years they have been amended significantly. The laws now act in a more restrictive way, with the excuse of the last counterterrorist laws’ boundaries”, says Galina Arapova from the Mass Media Defence Centre. These legal forms of control of journalists’ activities do not guarantee the professionals’ security. Violence against critical independent journalists (the murders, for example, of Dmitri Kholodov and Anna Politkovskaya) illustrates the dangers of the profession. In the past three years, 250 journalists have been killed in Russia (according to Arapova).

12 http://fr.rsf.org/ukraine-chronique-des-attaques-contre-les-18-09-2014,46264.html.

10Since the spring of 2014, the fighting in the Donetsk and Luhansk regions of eastern Ukraine has ironically revealed both the freedoms military journalists enjoy and the constraints they work under. This conflict, widely covered by print and digital media, is also one of the most dangerous for journalists and most closely monitored in media terms. In this undeclared war, involving anti-terrorist operations, guerrilla warfare and undercover counter-espionage, the control over military journalism and war reporting is variable and may even be absent. Because there has been no official declaration of war, the system of embedding journalists with the armed forces is not operational. News reporting therefore depends on the initiative of special correspondents, accounts by members of the public, part-time and citizen journalism, web posts and blogs open to more than one interpretation. The ill-defined nature of the current conflict and doubts about the identity of its protagonists place journalists from outside in a dangerous position. According to statistics kept by Reporters sans frontières12, the arbitrary arrest and disappearance of journalists soared in eastern Ukraine in spring and summer 2014. The victims of the conflict come from every category of journalist of whatever nationality (Russian, Ukrainian or Western) or media (television, radio, print). The insurgents of the People’s Republic of Donetsk actually issued a decree in July 2014 prohibiting “journalists, cameramen and photo-reporters” from “being present in combat zones and near military installations” during armed operations. These measures restricting access to the theatre of operations allow the most divergent interpretations of the military situation. In the absence of any clear institutional, legal or political framework, the new freedoms afforded by post-Soviet liberalisation and new media have not automatically led to a pluralistic coverage of military events but do endanger both journalists and the pluralism of information. Military journalism is thus a reflection of the social and political transformations that have occurred in contemporary Russia and its areas of intervention. It may consist of bearing witness, expressing opinion and commitment—a sign of journalists’ independence. But this degree of subjectivity comes at a higher cost than elsewhere in the absence of any effective public procedures for protecting its authors.
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Notes

1 And also by a specifically military conception of writing and discourse: C. Oger, “De l’esprit de corps au corps du texte: cohésion militaire et dissolution journalistique”, Langage et société, # 4, 2000.

2 H. Tumber, J. Palmer, Media at war. The Iraq crisis, London, Sage, 2004.

3 A.-J. Bizimana, “Les relations militaires-journalistes: évolution du contexte américain”, Les cahiers du journalisme, # 16, Autumn 2006.

4 E. Sieca-Kozlowski, “From controlling military information to controlling society: the political interests involved in the transformation of the military media under Putin”, Small Wars and Insurgencies, vol. 20, # 2, 2009, pp. 300-318.

5 C. Lemieux (dir), La subjectivité journalistique. Onze leçons sur le rôle de l’individualité dans la production de l’information, Paris, Editions de l’EHESS, 2010.

6 International Round Table. Military and War journalism from the USSR to Russia: Field Practices and Legal Regulations. Moscow, 15 April 2014. Organised by the Regional Delegation of the International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC) in the Russian Federation, Russian State University for the Humanities, Union of Journalists of Russia, Franco-Russian Centre for Social Sciences in Moscow and the journal PIPSS.

7 See Olga Pavlenko’s contribution to the April 2014 Round Table.

8 Concerning this weekly, see V. Solov’ev, “Stanovlenie nezavisimoi voennoi pechati v Rossii: opyt “Nezavisimogo voennogo obozrenia””, in M. Pogorelyi, I. Safranchuk (eds), Sovremennaia rossiiskaia voennaia zhurnalistika. Opyt, problemy, perspektivy, Moscow, Gendal’f, 2002, pp. 11-21.

9 Iu. Zheglova, Fenomen “prikomandirovannoi” zhurnalistiki. In: Mikhail Pogorelyi, Ivan Safranchuk (eds). Sovremennaia rossiiskaia voennaia zhurnalistika. Opyt, problemy, perspektivy. Moscow, Gendal’f, 2002, pp. 22-39.

10 A.-J. Bizimana, Au cœur du dispositif embedding: la surveillance des journalistes intégrés lors de la guerre en Irak, PhD Thesis, 2010, http://www.archipel.uqam.ca/3654/ (accessed on 21 October 2014).

11 H. Tumber, J. Palmer, Media at war. The Iraq crisis, London, Sage, 2004.

12 http://fr.rsf.org/ukraine-chronique-des-attaques-contre-les-18-09-2014,46264.html.
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References
Electronic reference

Françoise Daucé, « Military Journalists and War Correspondents From The USSR To Russia: Subjectivity Under Fire », The Journal of Power Institutions in Post-Soviet Societies [Online], Issue 16 | 2014, Online since 30 January 2014, connection on 22 March 2015. URL : http://pipss.revues.org/4121

About the author
Françoise Daucé

CERCEC / EHESS

The Death List of 312 Murdered Russian Journalists – Die Todesliste Russischer Journalisten

DEATHS OF JOURNALISTS IN RUSSIA

This database includes the violent, premature or unexplained deaths of journalists in Russia recorded by the country’s own media monitors since the early 1990s. Each entry (click on View in last column of Search Results) offers a narrative account of the journalist’s work and death based mainly on monitoring information gathered in Moscow by the Glasnost Defence Foundation and the Centre for Journalism in Extreme Situations.

Click here to jump to detailed search instructions.

 

About this database

In June 2009, the International Federation of Journalists, which sponsored the creation of this database, published a report entitled Partial Justice: An investigation into the deaths of journalists in Russia, 1993-2009. It is easier to use this database, and to follow the report, if the two sources are consulted together.

This online database has been specially designed to permit quick comparative searches by several criteria at once: for example, the nature of the incident (Incident), the region (Federal District+) where the incident occurred, subsequent actions by the authorities (Impunity), and an assessment of the link between the death and the individual’s activities as a journalist (Motive).

1. Searching For An Individual

If you know who you are looking for, type their surname into the Surname box in SEARCH CRITERIA and press Search. Then in the last Actions column of SEARCH RESULTS(above) select View and press Enter.

When you wish to return to the list of the latest deaths, press Search again.

2. Complex Search and Analysis

To identify wider groups of journalists by a variety of criteria (location, type of death, reason for death, job):

  1. Select from one or all of the five drop-down lists in SEARCH CRITERIA (Incident, Federal District +, Job, Motive, Impunity), and
  2. type in, Year of death and M or F in Sex field in order to see how many men and women have died or disappeared under what circumstances.

Once you have made your selection, click on Search. When you wish to return to the full list of the latest deaths, press Search again.

3. Reversing sequence of years

You can start with the earliest years of these records by clicking on the column heading for Date of Death in SEARCH RESULTS. This reverses the chronological sequence.

MOTIVE

The key entry Motive offers an assessment as to whether a particular death was certainly, possibly or probably not linked to the investigations and publications of the journalist in question. If the link is certain this is indicated as J. If it was not linked, this is indicated as nJ. In cases where there is a possibility of a link, but the death has not been officially investigated or that investigation leaves doubts as to the motive, then the death is indicated as ?J.

If the link is considered certain this is indicated as J. If no link is suggested or established this is indicated as nJ. “In cases where there is a possibility of a link but the death has not been officially investigated, or that investigation leaves doubts as to the motive, then the death is indicated as ?J.

By definition, cases where the are given a provisional assessment of nJ or ? when the cause of death is not confirmed (or disputed); the same applies to almost all the cases ofmissing journalists. Naturally, as investigations proceed and court hearings are held the assessment of motive may be revised.

 

 

Date First Surname Job Incident Federal District + Motive
16/12/2013 Arkady LANDER chief editor homicide Sochi, Krasnodar Region ?J View
12/07/2013 Akhmednabi AKHMEDNABIYEV journalist, deputy editor homicide Makhachkala, Republic of Dagestan J View
18/05/2013 Nikolai POTAPOV chief homicide Bykogorka, Stavropol Region ?J View
07/05/2013 Konstantin BAUER journalist homicide Lesosibirsk, Krasnoyarsk Region nJ View
08/04/2013 Mikhail BEKETOV chief editor homicide Khimki, Moscow Region J View
05/12/2012 Kazbek GEKKIEV news presenter homicide Nalchik, Kabardino-Balkaria J View
07/07/2012 Alexander KHODZINSKY journalist homicide Tulun, Irkutsk Region J View
15/12/2011 Hadjimurad KAMALOV director homicide Makhachkala, Dagestan J View
28/07/2011 Garun KURBANOV media worker homicide Makhachkala, Dagestan J View
22/06/2011 Anatoly BITKOV chief editor homicide Magadan, Kolyma Region nJ View
Date First Surname Job Incident Federal District + Motive
08/05/2011 Yahya MAGOMEDOV chief editor homicide Khasavyurt district, Dagestan nJ View
05/05/2011 Pavel BALAKIREV cameraman accident St Petersburg J View
16/01/2011 Roman NIKIFOROV editor homicide 1st Ostankino St, Moscow nJ View
14/01/2011 Yekaterina SILINA journalist homicide Moscow nJ View
27/10/2010 Yevgeny FEDOTOV journalist homicide Chita, Transbaikal Region nJ View
01/10/2010 Dayan SHAKIROV journalist not confirmed Yurya settlement, Kirov Region ?J View
11/08/2010 Magomedvagif SULTANMAGOMEDOV director homicide Makhachkala, Dagestan ?J View
01/08/2010 Malika BETIEVA chief editor, deputy accident Starye Atagi, Chechnya nJ View
25/07/2010 Bella KSALOVA journalist accident Cherkessk, Karachaevo-Cherkessia nJ View
25/06/2010 Dmitry OKKERT journalist homicide Moscow city centre nJ View
Date First Surname Job Incident Federal District + Motive
13/05/2010 Said IBRAGIMOV director terrorist act Sergokalinsky district, Dagestan J View
05/05/2010 Shamil ALIYEV director homicide Makhachkala, Dagestan ?J View
18/03/2010 Maxim ZUYEV journalist homicide Kaliningrad nJ View
23/02/2010 Ivan STEPANOV journalist homicide Khilok, Transbaikal Region nJ View
20/01/2010 Konstantin POPOV journalist homicide Tomsk nJ View
16/11/2009 Olga KOTOVSKAYA director not confirmed Kaliningrad ?J View
25/10/2009 Maksharip AUSHEV director homicide Nalchik, Kabardino-Balkaria ?J View
11/08/2009 Malik AKHMEDILOV chief editor homicide Makhachkala, Dagestan ?J View
15/07/2009 Natalya ESTEMIROVA journalist homicide Gazi-Yurt, Ingushetia J View
04/07/2009 Natalya OSTANINA journalist accident River Ob, Yamalo-Nenets Region J View
Date First Surname Job Incident Federal District + Motive
04/07/2009 Nelya LONGORTOVA journalist accident River Ob, Yamalo-Nenets Region J View
04/07/2009 Victor KURTYAMOV cameraman accident River Ob, Yamalo-Nenets Region J View
29/06/2009 Vyacheslav YAROSHENKO chief editor not confirmed Rostov-on-Don ?J View
30/03/2009 Sergei PROTAZANOV media worker, layout artist not confirmed Khimki, Moscow Region nJ View
19/01/2009 Anastasia BABUROVA journalist homicide Prechistenka St, Moscow J View
04/01/2009 Vladislav ZAKHARCHUK media worker, manager not confirmed Vladivostok, Primorsky Region ?J View
04/01/2009 Shafig AMRAKHOV chief editor homicide Murmansk nJ View
02/09/2008 Telman ALISHAYEV journalist homicide Makhachkala, Dagestan J View
31/08/2008 Magomed YEVLOYEV chief editor homicide Nazran, Ingushetia J View
22/08/2008 Yury GUSELNIKOV journalist missing Altai Republic nJ View
Date First Surname Job Incident Federal District + Motive
10/06/2008 Vadim SHEVTSOV journalist missing Irkutsk nJ View
21/03/2008 Gadji ABASHILOV director homicide Makhachkala, Dagestan ?J View
21/03/2008 Ilyas SHURPAYEV journalist homicide Veshnikh vod St, Moscow ?J View
08/02/2008 Yelena SHESTAKOVA journalist homicide Malaya Karpatskaya St, St Petersburg nJ View
23/11/2007 Valery Dragilev journalist accident Leningrad Region J View
28/09/2007 Pavel SOTNIK media worker, senior editor accident St Petersburg nJ View
01/08/2007 Igor KUDRYASHOV journalist not confirmed Artyomovsky, Sverdlovsk Region nJ View
21/07/2007 Marianna SHATIKHINA media worker, editor accident Moscow nJ View
16/07/2007 Alexander ZHADAYEV cameraman accident Penza J View
05/04/2007 Vyacheslav IFANOV cameraman not confirmed Aleisk, Altai ?J View
Date First Surname Job Incident Federal District + Motive
15/03/2007 Leonid ETKIND director homicide Vodnik, Saratov Region nJ View
02/03/2007 Ivan SAFRONOV journalist not confirmed Nizhegorodskaya St, Moscow ?J View
01/02/2007 Ivan Goryaev-Sandji journalist accident Elista, Kalmykia nJ View
20/01/2007 Konstantin BOROVKO media worker, presenter homicide Vladivostok, Primorsky Region nJ View
14/01/2007 Yury SHEBALKIN journalist homicide Kaliningrad nJ View
28/12/2006 Vadim KUZNETSOV chief editor homicide Kiev Highway, St Petersburg nJ View
16/10/2006 Anatoly VORONIN media worker, manager homicide Moscow nJ View
07/10/2006 Anna POLITKOVSKAYA journalist homicide Lesnaya St, Moscow J View
13/09/2006 Vyacheslav PLOTNIKOV journalist not confirmed Voronezh ?J View
09/09/2006 Konstantin AKSYONOV journalist homicide Orenburg Region nJ View
Date First Surname Job Incident Federal District + Motive
17/08/2006 Elina ERSENOYEVA journalist missing Grozny, Chechnya ?J View
08/08/2006 Alexander PETROV chief editor homicide Altai Region nJ View
31/07/2006 Anatoly KOZULIN journalist homicide Ukhta, Komi nJ View
25/07/2006 Yevgeny GERASIMENKO journalist homicide Saratov nJ View
25/06/2006 Anton KRETENCHUK cameraman homicide Rostov-on-Don nJ View
23/05/2006 Vyacheslav AKATOV journalist homicide Mytyshchi, Moscow Region nJ View
14/05/2006 Oleg BARABYSHKIN director homicide Chelyabinsk nJ View
04/05/2006 Oksana TESLO media worker, editor homicide Moscow Region nJ View
02/05/2006 Vladimir KOCHETOV cameraman accident Moscow J View
30/04/2006 Konstantin LASKIN journalist not confirmed Moscow Region nJ View
Date First Surname Job Incident Federal District + Motive
26/02/2006 Ilya ZIMIN journalist homicide Moscow nJ View
08/01/2006 Vagif KOCHETKOV journalist homicide Tula nJ View
04/11/2005 Kira LEZHNEVA journalist homicide Kamensk-Uralsky, Sverdlovsk Region nJ View
13/10/2005 Tamirlan KAZIKHANOV journalist crossfire Nalchik, Kabardino-Balkaria J View
03/09/2005 Vladimir Pashutin chief editor not confirmed Smolensk nJ View
31/08/2005 Alexander PITERSKY journalist homicide Razezhaya St, St Petersburg nJ View
28/07/2005 Magomed VARISOV journalist homicide Makhachkala, Dagestan J View
16/07/2005 Mavlon RADJABOV journalist homicide Moscow nJ View
23/05/2005 Pavel MAKEYEV journalist not confirmed Bataisk, Rostov Region ?J View
05/03/2005 Oksana Zelenko journalist accident Krasnoyarsk Region J View
Date First Surname Job Incident Federal District + Motive
09/12/2004 Alexei MIKHEYEV journalist accident district, Penza Region J View
27/09/2004 Jan TRAVINSKY journalist homicide Irkutsk nJ View
18/09/2004 Vladimir PRITCHIN chief editor homicide district, Buryatia J View
24/08/2004 Oleg BELOZYOROV chief editor terrorist act Moscow-Volgograd flight nJ View
24/08/2004 Svetlana SHISHKINA journalist homicide Kazan, Tatarstan nJ View
03/08/2004 Vladimir NAUMOV journalist homicide Zelenograd, Moscow Region nJ View
17/07/2004 Pail PELOYAN media worker, editor homicide Moscow Ring Road nJ View
10/07/2004 Zoya IVANOVA media worker, presenter homicide Ulan Ude, Buryatia nJ View
01/07/2004 Maxim MAXIMOV journalist homicide St Petersburg J View
10/06/2004 Alexander Kravchenko media worker, producer accident Tula J View
Date First Surname Job Incident Federal District + Motive
10/06/2004 Yevgeny Makeyev cameraman accident Tula J View
09/06/2004 Paul KLEBNIKOV chief editor homicide Dokukin St, Moscow J View
09/05/2004 Adlan KHASANOV journalist terrorist act Grozny, Chechnya J View
02/05/2004 Shangysh MONGUSH journalist homicide district, Tuva nJ View
23/03/2004 Farit URAZBAYEV cameraman not confirmed Vladivostok, Primorsky Region nJ View
01/02/2004 Yefim SUKHANOV journalist homicide Arkhangelsk nJ View
25/12/2003 Pyotr BABENKO chief editor homicide Liski, Voronezh Region nJ View
15/12/2003 Khanpash TERKIBAYEV media worker, presenter accident Grozny, Chechnya nJ View
30/10/2003 Valery OVSYANNIKOV cameraman accident district, Rostov Region J View
30/10/2003 Yury BUGROV media worker, editor homicide Balakovo, Saratov Region nJ View

 

 

Date First Surname Job Incident Federal District + Motive
24/10/2003 Alexei BAKHTIN journalist homicide district, Mari El nJ View
09/10/2003 Alexei SIDOROV chief editor homicide Togliatti, Samara Region ?J View
04/10/2003 Natalya Astafyeva journalist accident Tyumen Region J View
04/10/2003 Sergei Isakov cameraman accident Tyumen Region J View
14/08/2003 Galina Morozova journalist accident Izhevsk, Udmurtia J View
10/08/2003 Martin KRAUS journalist homicide Gumbetovskoi district, Dagestan nJ View
07/08/2003 Isa ABAYEV media worker missing Grozny, Chechnya nJ View
18/07/2003 Alikhan GULIYEV journalist homicide Startovaya St, Moscow nJ View
04/07/2003 Ali ASTAMIROV journalist missing Nazran, Ingushetia ?J View
03/07/2003 Yury SHCHEKOCHIKHIN journalist homicide Central clinical hospital, Moscow J View

 

 

 

 

Date First Surname Job Incident Federal District + Motive
13/05/2003 Yevgeny Golub media worker accident Stavropol Region J View
13/05/2003 Julianna Bondareva journalist accident Stavropol Region J View
13/05/2003 Victor BOGMA media worker accident Stavropol Region J View
09/05/2003 Alexander SAMULTSEV journalist not confirmed Barnaul, Altai nJ View
03/05/2003 Konstantin Kozar journalist accident Chita Region J View
03/05/2003 Ruslan Yamalov photographer accident Chita Region J View
03/05/2003 Julianna Nakhodkina journalist accident Chita Region J View
03/05/2003 Galina Kovalskaya journalist accident Chita Region J View
18/04/2003 Dmitry SHVETS director, deputy homicide Murmansk nJ View
14/04/2003 Alexander Vorobyov director missing Tula nJ View

 

Date First Surname Job Incident Federal District + Motive
21/02/2003 Sergei Verbitsky director, publisher homicide Chita nJ View
11/01/2003 Yury TISHKOV journalist homicide Dmitrovskoe highway, Moscow nJ View
07/01/2003 Vladimir SUKHOMLIN journalist homicide Narofominskaya St, Moscow J View
07/01/2003 Maria ANDREYEVA journalist not confirmed Novoyasenevsky Prospect, Moscow nJ View
21/12/2002 Dmitry SHALAYEV chief editor, deputy homicide Kazan, Tatarstan nJ View
26/10/2002 Tamara VOINOVA journalist terrorist act Dubrovka theatre, Moscow nJ View
26/10/2002 Maxim MIKHAILOV journalist terrorist act Dubrovka theatre, Moscow nJ View
19/10/2002 Leonid Plotnikov media worker, manager homicide Yoshkar-Ola, Mari El nJ View
02/10/2002 Yelena POPOVA media worker, manager homicide Novosibirsk nJ View
26/09/2002 Roderick SCOTT journalist crossfire Galashki, Ingushetia J View

 

Date First Surname Job Incident Federal District + Motive
06/06/2002 Pavel Morozov director homicide Smolensk nJ View
20/05/2002 Alexander Plotnikov director, publisher homicide Tyumen nJ View
29/04/2002 Valery IVANOV chief editor homicide Togliatti, Samara Region J View
28/04/2002 Konstantin Stepanov journalist accident Krasnoyarsk Region J View
28/04/2002 Igor Gareyev cameraman accident Krasnoyarsk Region J View
28/04/2002 Natalya Pivovarova journalist accident Krasnoyarsk Region J View
25/04/2002 Leonid Shevchenko media worker, editor homicide Volgograd nJ View
04/04/2002 Vitaly Sakhn-Vald photographer homicide Kursk nJ View
01/04/2002 Sergei KALINOVSKY chief editor homicide Smolensk nJ View
31/03/2002 Valery Batuyev journalist homicide Otkrytoe Highway, Moscow nJ View

 

Date First Surname Job Incident Federal District + Motive
08/03/2002 Natalya SKRYL journalist homicide Taganrog, Rostov Region ?J View
04/03/2002 Konstantin Pogodin journalist homicide Nizhny Novgorod nJ View
27/01/2002 Yury Baranyuk journalist accident Shelkovo, Chechnya J View
18/01/2002 Svetlana Makarenko media worker, manager homicide Krasnodar nJ View
01/12/2001 Boris Mityurev journalist homicide Chelyabinsk nJ View
21/11/2001 Alexander Babaikin chief editor, deputy homicide Yoshkar-Ola, Mari El nJ View
16/11/2001 Oleg Vedenin director homicide Novokuznetsk, Kemerovo Region nJ View
11/11/2001 Yevgeny Smelyansky media worker, presenter missing Khasavyurt, Dagestan ?J View
05/11/2001 Elina Voronova journalist homicide Kostroma nJ View
24/10/2001 Alan Kalayev journalist accident Vladikavkaz, North Ossetia nJ View

 

Date First Surname Job Incident Federal District + Motive
19/09/2001 Eduard MARKEVICH chief editor homicide Reftinsky, Sverdlovsk Region J View
11/09/2001 Andrei Sheiko journalist homicide Novaya Basmannaya St, Moscow nJ View
02/06/2001 Lydia Gemma journalist accident district, Khabarovsk Region J View
02/06/2001 Vladimir Pivovarov cameraman accident district, Khabarovsk Region J View
02/06/2001 Larisa Maklakova journalist accident district, Khabarovsk Region J View
02/06/2001 Victor POPKOV journalist crossfire Alkhan-Kala, Chechnya J View
02/06/2001 Yury Apollonov cameraman accident district, Khabarovsk Region J View
17/05/2001 Vladimir KIRSANOV chief editor homicide Kurgan J View
13/04/2001 Sergei Korabelnikov cameraman missing Tula nJ View
31/03/2001 Oleg Dolgantsev journalist homicide Petrozavodsk, Karelia nJ View

 

Date First Surname Job Incident Federal District + Motive
08/03/2001 Andrei Pivovarov journalist homicide Pechersky district, Pskov Region nJ View
24/02/2001 Leonid Grigoryev media worker, editor homicide Chelyabinsk nJ View
01/02/2001 Eduard Burmagin journalist homicide Vsevolozhsk, Leningrad Region nJ View
23/12/2000 Valery Kondakov photographer homicide Armavir, Krasnodar Region nJ View
28/11/2000 Nikolai Karmanov journalist homicide Lyubim, Yaroslavl Region nJ View
23/11/2000 Adam Tepsurkayev cameraman homicide Alkhan-Kala (Yermolovka), Chechnya ?J View
20/11/2000 Pavel Asaulchenko cameraman homicide Krutitsky val, Moscow nJ View
08/11/2000 Igor Savin chief editor not confirmed Zhukovsky, Moscow Region nJ View
03/11/2000 Sergei Loginov chief editor not confirmed Togliatti, Samara Region nJ View
21/10/2000 Raif ABLYASHEV photographer homicide Kungur, Perm Region nJ View

 

Date First Surname Job Incident Federal District + Motive
20/10/2000 Oleg Goryansky journalist homicide Cherepovets, Vologda Region nJ View
18/10/2000 Georgy Garibyan media worker, presenter homicide Rostov-on-Don nJ View
03/10/2000 Sergei Ivanov director homicide Togliatti, Samara Region ?J View
21/09/2000 Iskander KHATLONI journalist homicide Onezhskaya St, Moscow nJ View
26/07/2000 Sergei NOVIKOV director homicide Smolensk ?J View
19/07/2000 Nikolai Kolesov journalist not confirmed Revda, Sverdlovsk Region nJ View
01/06/2000 Valery Tokarev journalist not confirmed Prokopyevsk, Kemerovo Region nJ View
16/05/2000 Igor DOMNIKOV journalist homicide Pererva St, Moscow J View
13/05/2000 Alexander YEFREMOV photographer crossfire Alkhan-Kala, Chechnya J View
01/05/2000 Boris GASHEV journalist homicide Perm nJ View

 

Date First Surname Job Incident Federal District + Motive
17/04/2000 Oleg POLUKEYEV chief editor, deputy homicide Altufyevskoe metro station, Moscow nJ View
01/04/2000 Sergei PANARIN journalist missing Shabalino, Kirov Region ?J View
22/03/2000 Luisa ARZHIEVA journalist crossfire Avtury, Chechnya J View
14/03/2000 Harmut Shulz photographer not confirmed Kaliningrad nJ View
09/03/2000 Artyom BOROVIK journalist not confirmed Sheremetyevo 1, Moscow ?J View
10/02/2000 Ludmila ZAMANA journalist homicide Samara nJ View
01/02/2000 Vladimir YATSINA photographer homicide south, Chechnya J View
17/12/1999 Alexander LOSKUTOV journalist accident Grozny, Chechnya J View
29/10/1999 Ramzan MEZHIDOV journalist crossfire Shami Yurt, Chechnya J View
29/10/1999 Shamil GIGAYEV cameraman crossfire Shami Yurt, Chechnya J View

 

 

Date First Surname Job Incident Federal District + Motive
27/10/1999 Supyan EPENDIYEV journalist crossfire Grozny, Chechnya J View
27/09/1999 Christopher REESE media worker, producer homicide Tverskaya St, Moscow nJ View
30/08/1999 Lubov LOBODA chief editor homicide Kuybyshev, Novosibirsk Region nJ View
22/08/1999 Sergei Shcherbovich cameraman not confirmed district, Murmansk Region nJ View
22/08/1999 Yevgeny Vedernikov director not confirmed district, Murmansk Region nJ View
30/06/1999 Vadim RUDENKO journalist homicide Ovchinnikovskaya embankment, Moscow nJ View
10/06/1999 Dmitry Kormakov director not confirmed Nizhny Novgorod nJ View
30/05/1999 Alexei Kulanov media worker, presenter homicide Syktyvkar, Komi nJ View
04/03/1999 Andrei POLYAKOV journalist homicide Boulevard Dmitry Donskoi, Moscow nJ View
25/02/1999 Valentina Mirolyubova journalist homicide Yaroslavl nJ View

 

Date First Surname Job Incident Federal District + Motive
25/02/1999 Nikolai Mirolyubov journalist homicide Yaroslavl nJ View
19/02/1999 Gennady BODROV photographer homicide Kursk nJ View
09/02/1999 Valentina Neverova chief editor accident Samara J View
30/12/1998 Sergei Chechugo chief editor, deputy not confirmed Vladivostok, Primorsky Region ?J View
04/10/1998 Galina Mashtakova journalist accident J View
02/09/1998 Farid SIDAUI media worker, editor homicide Ramenka St, Moscow nJ View
29/08/1998 Victor SHAMRO journalist homicide St Petersburg nJ View
27/08/1998 Mirbaba Seidov media worker, editor homicide district, Kaliningrad Region nJ View
24/08/1998 Anatoly LEVIN-UTKIN chief editor, deputy homicide St Petersburg ?J View
17/08/1998 Sergei Semenduyev chief editor missing Makhachkala, Dagestan nJ View

 

Date First Surname Job Incident Federal District + Motive
28/07/1998 Vladimir Ustinov journalist homicide Ivanovo nJ View
07/06/1998 Larisa YUDINA chief editor homicide Elista, Kalmykia J View
20/05/1998 Igor MYASNIKOV director homicide Kineshma, Yaroslavl Region nJ View
06/04/1998 Lira Lobach journalist homicide district, Tomsk Region nJ View
02/04/1998 Ivan Fedyunin media worker, editor homicide Bryansk nJ View
30/01/1998 Vladimir ZBARATSKY journalist homicide Mosfilmoskaya St, Moscow nJ View
20/11/1997 Andrei FADIN journalist accident Kutuzovsky prospect, Moscow nJ View
19/10/1997 Lydia Lazarenko media worker, editor homicide Nizhny Novgorod nJ View
06/08/1997 Valery KRIVOSHEYEV journalist homicide Lipetsk nJ View
03/08/1997 Andrei Pralnikov journalist accident J View

 

Date First Surname Job Incident Federal District + Motive
30/06/1997 Manuk ZHAZHOYAN journalist accident Nevsky prospekt, St Petersburg nJ View
21/06/1997 Inessa Donchenko media worker, broadcaster accident Sokolniki district, Moscow nJ View
10/05/1997 Alexander Korkin director, publisher homicide Pereslavl-Zalessky, Yaroslavl Region nJ View
01/04/1997 Valentin Karkavtsev journalist accident Mezhevo, Tver Region nJ View
30/03/1997 Nikolai Mozolin journalist homicide Kirovsk, Leningrad Region nJ View
23/03/1997 Vladimir ALIYEV journalist homicide Prokhladnoe, Kabardino-Balkaria nJ View
25/02/1997 Vadim BIRYUKOV chief editor homicide Novolesnaya St, Moscow nJ View
12/02/1997 Vyacheslav ZVONAREV media worker, editor homicide Kursk nJ View
03/02/1997 Yury BALDIN chief editor homicide Chelyabinsk nJ View
16/01/1997 Alexei YELDASHOV journalist homicide Khabarovsk nJ View

 

Date First Surname Job Incident Federal District + Motive
16/01/1997 Nikolai LAPIN chief editor homicide Togliatti, Samara Region nJ View
07/12/1996 Anatoly Belousov chief editor homicide Moscow Region nJ View
06/12/1996 Kirill Polenov journalist homicide Vladikavkaz, North Ossetia nJ View
10/11/1996 Marina GORELOVA journalist terrorist act Kotlyakovskoe cemetery, Moscow J View
10/11/1996 Yury SHMAKOV media worker, consultant terrorist act Kotlyakovskoe cemetery, Moscow J View
31/10/1996 Sergei Semisotov media worker, editor homicide Volgograd nJ View
29/10/1996 Lev BOGOMOLOV chief editor not confirmed Kaluga nJ View
27/10/1996 Anatoly TYUTINKOV director not confirmed St Petersburg nJ View
16/09/1996 En Chan KIM journalist homicide Zhulebino, Moscow nJ View
11/08/1996 Ramzan KHADJIEV journalist crossfire Grozny, Chechnya

 

Date First Surname Job Incident Federal District + Motive
01/08/1996 Ivan GOGUN journalist crossfire Grozny, Chechnya J View
26/07/1996 Nikita CHIGARKOV journalist homicide Moscow nJ View
11/05/1996 Victor MIKHAILOV journalist homicide Chita ?J View
09/05/1996 Nina YEFIMOVA journalist homicide Grozny, Chechnya J View
22/04/1996 Valery Zufarov photographer accident J View
18/04/1996 Anatoly YAGODIN journalist crossfire Assinovskaya, Chechnya J View
30/03/1996 Nadezhda CHAIKOVA journalist homicide Gekhi, Chechnya J View
11/03/1996 Victor PIMENOV cameraman crossfire Grozny, Chechnya J View
26/02/1996 Felix SOLOVYOV journalist homicide Moscow nJ View
08/02/1996 Yury Litvinov director homicide Dalnegorsk, Primorsky Region nJ View
Date First Surname Job Incident Federal District + Motive
08/02/1996 Alexander Zaitsev director homicide Dalnegorsk, Primorsky Region nJ View
25/01/1996 Oleg SLABYNKO media worker, producer homicide Moscow nJ View
26/12/1995 Vadim ALFERYEV journalist homicide Krasnoyarsk ?J View
24/12/1995 Yevgeny MOLCHANOV cameraman accident district, Chechnya J View
12/12/1995 Shamkhan KAGIROV journalist crossfire Grozny district, Chechnya J View
10/12/1995 Yaroslav ZVALTSEV director homicide Magnitogorsk, Chelyabinsk Region nJ View
12/11/1995 Victor LITVINOV journalist homicide Pr. Vernadsky metro station, Moscow nJ View
08/11/1995 Sergei Ananyev media worker, manager homicide Irkutsk nJ View
02/11/1995 Andrei Ulanov chief editor homicide Togliatti, Samara Region ?J View
01/09/1995 Igor FILIMONOV chief editor not confirmed Tula nJ View
Date First Surname Job Incident Federal District + Motive
10/08/1995 Vadim OBEKHOV journalist homicide Petropavlovsk, Kamchatka Region nJ View
04/08/1995 Sergei NAZAROV media worker, editor homicide Pyatnitskaya St, Moscow nJ View
25/07/1995 Andrew Shumak Jr photographer missing Grozny, Chechnya ?J View
17/06/1995 Natalya ALYAKINA-MROSZEK journalist crossfire Budyonnovsk, Stavropol Region J View
06/06/1995 Alexander KONOVALENKO journalist homicide Volgograd ?J View
05/06/1995 Sergei IVANOV photographer missing south, Chechnya ?J View
22/05/1995 Farkhad KERIMOV cameraman homicide Vedeno, Chechnya J View
06/05/1995 Malkan SULEIMANOVA journalist crossfire Shatoi, Chechnya J View
31/03/1995 Ruslan TSEBIYEV journalist homicide Grozny, Chechnya ?J View
16/03/1995 Alexei KHROPOV director homicide Leningrad Highway, Moscow Region nJ View
Date First Surname Job Incident Federal District + Motive
08/03/1995 Oleg OCHKASOV journalist homicide Voronezh nJ View
03/03/1995 Igor Kaverin media worker, engineer homicide district, Primorsky Region nJ View
01/03/1995 Vladislav LISTYEV director homicide Moscow nJ View
27/02/1995 Maxim Shabalin journalist missing Orekhovo, Chechnya ?J View
27/02/1995 Felix TITOV journalist missing Orekhovo, Chechnya ?J View
17/02/1995 Vyacheslav Rudnev journalist homicide Kaluga ?J View
21/01/1995 Timofei GRIGORYANTS media worker, editor accident Moscow nJ View
14/01/1995 Valentin YANUS journalist crossfire Grozny, Chechnya J View
10/01/1995 Jochen PIEST journalist crossfire Chervlyonnaya, Chechnya J View
07/01/1995 Sultan NURIYEV journalist not confirmed Grozny, Chechnya ?J View
Date First Surname Job Incident Federal District + Motive
01/01/1995 Vladimir ZHITARENKO journalist crossfire Grozny, Chechnya J View
01/01/1995 Pyotr NOVIKOV journalist homicide Moscow nJ View
31/12/1994 Bilal AKHMADOV journalist crossfire Grozny, Chechnya J View
30/12/1994 Vladimir ANISIMOV journalist homicide Moscow nJ View
22/12/1994 Cynthia ELBAUM photographer crossfire Grozny, Chechnya J View
14/12/1994 Gelani CHARIGOV journalist crossfire Grozny, Chechnya J View
26/11/1994 Hussein GUZUYEV director crossfire Grozny, Chechnya J View
17/10/1994 Dmitry KHOLODOV journalist homicide 1905 St, Moscow J View
15/10/1994 Tatyana ZHURAVLYOVA media worker homicide Voronezh Region nJ View
15/10/1994 Igor ZHURAVLYOV media worker homicide Voronezh Region nJ View
Date First Surname Job Incident Federal District + Motive
17/07/1994 Yelena ROSHCHINA media worker, editor homicide Ivanovo nJ View
15/06/1994 Yury SOLTYS journalist homicide Moscow Region ?J View
13/05/1994 Edmund YODKOVSKY chief editor accident Moscow nJ View
26/04/1994 Andrei AIDZERDZIS director, publisher homicide Khimki, Moscow Region nJ View
01/02/1994 Sergei DUBOV director, publisher homicide Moscow nJ View
09/12/1993 Marina ISKANDEROVA journalist homicide Nadym, Yamalo-Nenets Region nJ View
29/11/1993 Yelena TKACHOVA media worker, proof-reader terrorist act Krasnodar J View
04/10/1993 Alexander SIDELNIKOV journalist crossfire Supreme Soviet building, Moscow J View
04/10/1993 Alexander SMIRNOV journalist crossfire Supreme Soviet building, Moscow J View
03/10/1993 Sergei KRASILNIKOV media worker, editor homicide Ostankino, Moscow J View
Date First Surname Job Incident Federal District + Motive
03/10/1993 Igor BELOZYOROV media worker, editor crossfire Ostankino, Moscow J View
03/10/1993 Yvan SKOPAN journalist crossfire Ostankino, Moscow J View
03/10/1993 Rory PECK cameraman crossfire Ostankino, Moscow J View
03/10/1993 Vladimir DROBYSHEV media worker, editor crossfire Ostankino, Moscow J View
14/04/1993 Dmitry KRIKORYANTS journalist homicide Grozny, Chechnya J View

Auf der Todesliste – Enthüllungsjournalist weiß zuviel

 

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