A. Alois Brenner – Syria *
Key operative of Adolf Eichmann. Responsible for deportation of Jews from Austria (47,000), Greece (44,000), France (23,500), and Slovakia (14,000) to Nazi death camps.
Status: Lived in Syria for decades; Syrian refusal to cooperate stymies prosecution efforts; convicted in absentia by France. Alois Brunner is the most important unpunished Nazi war criminal who may still be alive, but the likelihood that he is already decreased increases with each passing year. Born in 1912 and last seen in 2001, the chances of his being alive are relatively slim, but until conclusive evidence of his demise is obtained, he should still be mentioned on any Most Wanted List of Holocaust perpetrators.
B. Dr. Aribert Heim – ?? *
Doctor in Sachsenhausen (1940), Buchenwald (1941) and Mauthausen (1941) concentration camps. Murdered dozens of camp inmates by lethal injection in Mauthausen.
Status: Disappeared in 1962 prior to planned prosecution; wanted in Germany and Austria New evidence revealed in February 2009 suggests that he may have died in Cairo in 1992, but questions regarding these findings and the fact that there is no corpse to examine, raise doubts as to the veracity of this information. During the past year, a court in Baden-Baden, Germany closed the case without forensic confirmation of Heim’s death.
- Ladislaus Csizsik-Csatary – Hungary
Served as the Commander of the Hungarian police in Kosice (Hungarian-occupied Slovakia) and was in charge of the ghetto of “privileged” Jews; helped organize the deportation to Auschwitz of approximately 15,700 Jews from Kosice and vicinity in spring 1944.
Status: : Convicted in absentia and sentenced to death for torturing Jews and his role in the mass deportation to Auschwitz. Escaped to Canada after World War II, but was stripped of his Canadian citizenship in 1997, and chose to voluntarily leave the country. His whereabouts were unknown until fall 2011 when he was discovered living in Budapest by the Wiesenthal Center in the framework of “Operation: Last Chance.” On July 17, 2012, Csatary was charged with torture of the Jews in the KosiceGhetto, and was placed under house arrest and had his passport confiscated. Currently under house arrest in Hungary, where he awaits possible prosecution. In late March 2013, a Slovak court commuted his death sentence to life imprisonment to enable Slovakia to seek Csatary’s extradition to stand trial for his crimes in Kosice.
- Gerhard Sommer – Germany
Former SS-Untersturmfuehrer in the 16th Panzergrenadier Division Reichsfuehrer-SS; participated in the massacre of 560 civilians in the Italian village of Sant’ Anna di Stazzema.
Status: On June 25, 2005, Sommer was convicted in absentia by a military court in La Spezia, Italy for committing “murder with special cruelty” in Sant’ Anna di Stazzema. Since 2002, he has been under investigation in Germany, but no criminal charges have yet been brought against him.
- Vladimir Katriuk – Canada
Served as a platoon commander of the first company of Ukrainian Schutzmannschaft Battalion 118 which carried out the murder of Jews and innocent civilians in various places in Belarus.
Status: Escaped to Canada after World War II but was stripped of his Canadian citizenship in January 1999 after his service as a Nazi collaborator was revealed. In May 2007, the Canadian authorities decided to overturn his denaturalization, a decision confirmed by the Federal Court of Appeal in November 2010. New research by Swedish historian Per Anders Rudling revealed Katriuk’s active role in the mass murder of the residents of the village of Khatyn, Belarus and provides a firm basis to overturn the decision not to strip Katriuk of his Canadian citizenship.
- Hans (Antanas) Lipschis – Germany
Served in the SS–Totenkopf Sturmbann (Death’s Head Battalion) from October 1941 until 1945 at theAuschwitz-Birkenau death camp where he participated in the mass murder and persecution of innocent civilians, primarily Jews.
Status: Escaped to the United States after World War II, but was deported by the American Office of Special Investigations to Germany in April 1983. Currently under investigation by the German authorities for his role in the Nazi death camp.
- Ivan (John) Kalymon – United States
Served in Nazi-controlled Ukrainian Auxiliary Police in Lvov (then German-occupied Poland, todayUkraine) during the years 1941-1944, during which time he participated in the murder, roundups and deportation of Jews living in the Lvov Ghetto.
Status: On January 31, 2011, Kalymon was ordered deported from the United States to Germany,Ukraine, Poland, or any country willing to admit him, for concealing his wartime service with forces in collaboration with Nazi Germany and his participation violent acts of persecution. No such country has yet been found and he therefore remains in the United States.
- Soeren Kam – Germany
Volunteered for SS-Viking Division, where he served as an officer; participated in the murder of Danish anti-Nazi newspaper editor Carl Henrik Clemmensen.
Status: In 1999, Denmark requested the extradition of Kam, which Germany refused due to his German citizenship. A subsequent extradition request was refused in early 2007 on the grounds that Clemmensen’s death was not murder but manslaughter, which was under a statue of limitation. Efforts continue to bring Kam to justice either in Germany or in Denmark.
- Algimantas Dailide – Germany
Served in the Vilnius District of the Saugumas(Lithuanian Security Police); arrested Jews and Poles executed by the Nazis and local Lithuanian collaborators.
Status: His American citizenship was revoked in 1997 and he was deported from the United States in 2004 for concealing his wartime activities with the Saugumas. In 2006, he was convicted by a Lithuanian court for arresting 12 Jews trying to escape from the Vilnius Ghetto (and 2 Poles), who were subsequently executed by the Nazis, and was sentenced to five years imprisonment. The judges, however, refused to implement his sentence because he was old and was caring for his ill wife and “did not pose a danger to society.” In July 2008, in response to an appeal against the refusal to implement his sentence, Dailde was ruled medically unfit to be punished, without being personally examined by the doctors who provided the expertise.
- Mikhail Gorshkow – Estonia
Served as interpreter for the Gestapo in Belarus and is alleged to have participated in the mass murder of Jews in Slutzk.
Status: Fled from the United States to Estonia before he was denaturalized for concealing his wartime service with the Nazis; had been under investigation in Estonia since his arrival several years ago, but in October 2011 the Estonian authorities closed the investigation against Gorshkow, claiming the case was one of “mistaken identity,” a decision which was severely criticized by the United States, Russia, and the Simon Wiesenthal Center.
- Theodor Szehinskyj – United States
Served as an armed SS Death’s Head guard at the Gross Rosen (Poland), Sachsenhausen (Germany) andWarsaw (Poland) concentration camps where he actively participated in the persecution of civilian prisoners.
Status: Escaped to the United States after World War II, but was stripped of his American citizenship in 2000 by the Office of Special Investigations and was ordered deported in 2003. To this date, no country has been willing to admit him and he therefore remains in the United States.
- Helmut Oberlander – Canada
Served in Einsatzkommando 10a (part of Einstazgruppe D) which operated in southern Ukraine andCrimea and is estimated to have murdered more than 23,000 people, mostly Jews.
Status: Escaped to Canada after World War II, but was stripped of his Canadian citizenship in August 2001, after his wartime service with the Nazis was revealed. In May 2004 his citizenship was restored but it was revoked a second time in May 2007, and that decision was overturned by a Federal Court of Appeal in November 2009. The case is currently pending again.
NAMES ON PREVIOUS LISTS:
- Karoly (Charles) Zentai
- Klass Carel Faber (Died May 2012)
- Sándor Képíró (Died September 2011)
- Dr. Aribert Heim (Died in 1992; Evidence of Death Uncovered in September 2012)
- Milivoj Ašner (Died June 2011)
- Adolf Storms (Died June 2010)
- Peter Egner (Died January 2011)
- John Demjanjuk (Died March 2012)
- Heinrich Boere (Convicted March 2010)
- Harry Mannil (Died January 2010)
- Erna Wallisch (Died February 2008)
- Lajos Polgar (Died July 2006)
- Ladislav Nizmansky (Acquitted December 2005)
- Jack Reimer (Died August 2005)
Sources: Dr. Efraim Zuroff, “2013 Annual Report on the Status of Nazi War Criminals,” Simon Wiesenthal Center [PDF] (April 2013); Associated Press (July 30, 2013)