TOP-SECRET – Congressional Budget Office Report: Distribution of Expenditures in Individual Income Tax System



A number of exclusions, deductions, preferential rates, and credits in the federal tax system cause revenues to be much lower than they would be otherwise for any given structure of tax rates. Some of those provisions—in both the individual and corporate income tax systems—are termed “tax expenditures” because they resemble federal spending by providing financial assistance to specific activities, entities, or groups of people. Tax expenditures, like traditional forms of federal spending, contribute to the federal budget deficit; influence how people work, save, and invest; and affect the distribution of income. This report examines how 10 of the largest tax expenditures in the individual income tax system in 2013 are distributed among households with different amounts of income. Those expenditures are grouped into four categories:

Exclusions from taxable income—
• Employer-sponsored health insurance,
• Net pension contributions and earnings,
• Capital gains on assets transferred at death, and
• A portion of Social Security and Railroad Retirement benefits;

Itemized deductions—
• Certain taxes paid to state and local governments,
• Mortgage interest payments, and
• Charitable contributions;

Preferential tax rates on capital gains and dividends;

Tax credits—
• The earned income tax credit, and
• The child tax credit.

Some of the provisions of law that reduce the amount of taxable income under the individual income tax also decrease the amount of earnings subject to payroll taxes. The figures presented in this report are generally based on the reduction in payroll taxes as well as the reduction in income taxes, but some figures separate those two effects. (Provisions that reduce payroll tax receipts generally reduce future Social Security benefits as well; that effect is not analyzed in this report.)

How Do Tax Expenditures Affect the Federal Budget?

Although the 10 major tax expenditures listed here represent a small fraction of the more than 200 tax expenditures in the individual and corporate income tax systems, they will account for roughly two-thirds of the total budgetary effects of all tax expenditures in fiscal year 2013, the Congressional Budget Office (CBO) estimates. Together, those 10 tax expenditures are estimated to total more than $900 billion, or 5.7 percent of gross domestic product (GDP), in fiscal year 2013 and are projected to amount to nearly $12 trillion, or 5.4 percent of GDP, over the 2014–2023 period. In addition, tax credits to subsidize premiums for health insurance provided through new exchanges to be established under the Affordable Care Act will represent a new tax expenditure beginning in 2014, estimated to equal 0.4 percent of GDP over the 2014–2023 period.




Dich krigen wir auch noch.

Genauso wie wir Deine Intenretseiten fertig gemacht haben, machen wir Dich auch kaputt !


Wir haben nichts mit GoMoPa zu tun. Auch nicht mit Knoll oder Ehlers.

Wir mögen nur nicht diese STASI-Stories !!!!


Video – Glenn Greenwald Interviews Former CIA Senior Adviser Ed Snowden

Booz Allen’s PRISM Whistleblower, Ed Snowden, explains to the NY Times best selling author and award winning Guardian columnist Glenn Greenwald, that at 29 years of age, as an employee of an independent contractor (i.e. not an employee of the U.S. Government) he “had the authorities to wiretap anyone including the President.” Snowdon characterizes PRISM as “turnkey tyranny” and an “architecture of oppression.”

Copyright © 2013 Praxis Films / Laura Poitras. This item of information is made available pursuant to 17 U.S.C. sec. 107.


The Return Of McCarthyism: Obama’s “Insider Threat Task Force”; Federal Workers Ordered To Spy On Each Other; Talking To The Press Considered Espionage; Same Great Dental

Valerie Plame Wilson And Joe Wilson: Risk Management Industrial Complex Is “Unaccountable” “Immense” “Ripe For Abuse” “Owe Snowden Debt Of Gratitude”

Citizen Snowden: The Last Remaining Defense To Unbridled Executive Authority In A Post ‘Amnesty’ Republic

Better Than Perjury: How James Clapper Punk’d Ron Wyden, Ed Snowden And The Global Commentariat

Former NSA Senior Counsel, Lawfare’s Joel Brenner Sees Snowden As A Coward

Washington Post Columnist Marc Thiessen’s Frivolous Claim: “Greenwald’s crime is violating 18 USC § 798”

TOP-SECRET – NSA Hardening Network Infrastructure: Security Recommendations for System Accreditors


1. (U) Purpose: Many networks run by public and private organizations have experienced intrusions in recent years, and this cyber exploitation has resulted in an unprecedented transfer of wealth due to lost intellectual property. The threats to our networks and systems exist across numerous components that include end-user-devices, servers, and infrastructure devices. To address threats to routers and other network infrastructure devices, the National Security Agency’s Information Assurance Directorate (IAD) is publishing this IAA to guide U.S. Government systems accreditors’ strategic plan for network hardening. IAD will also be releasing an UNCLASSIFIED Factsheet (MIT-003FS-2013) with the same recommendations to help other public and private sector organizations combat the challenge of cyber exploitation through hardening networks.

2. (U) Security Recommendations

(U) Device Integrity

Purchase network hardware only from the manufacturer or from resellers who are authorized and certified by the equipment manufacturer.
Use a trusted administrative workstation to compare the file hash for network device firmware to the manufacturer’s published hash before installing new firmware on a network device. Periodically re-verify the file hash of the running firmware while the network device is in operation.
Avoid installing and do not run network device firmware versions that are no longer available from the manufacturer.
Shut down unused physical interfaces on network devices.
Implement access lists that allow only those protocols, ports and IP addresses that are required by network users and services, and then deny everything else.
Protect the network device configuration file from unauthorized disclosure. Take steps to avoid the appearance of plaintext passwords in the configuration file. Using encryption and/or a salted hash with iteration is critical to protect the confidentiality of passwords in configuration files—encoding alone is not enough.
Change passwords/keys immediately if the network device configuration file is transmitted in the clear (or is otherwise exposed) while containing non-encrypted passwords/keys.
Use secure protocols when transmitting network device configuration files.
Ensure that an audit event is created upon reboot and when configuration changes are applied to network devices.
Shut down unneeded services on network devices.
Review logs periodically to gain an in depth understanding of normal network behavior.

(U) Secure Management

Only use secure protocol standards (SSHv2; IKEv2/IPsec; TLS v1.0+) when performing remote management of network devices. For further details, see Annex C of NIAP’s Network Device Protection Profile (NDPP) –
Restrict remote management connectivity to only controlled machines that are on a separate security domain with robust protection.
Create and maintain a written network infrastructure security policy. This policy should identify who is allowed to log in to network infrastructure devices and who is allowed to configure network devices, and should define a plan for updating network device firmware at scheduled intervals.
Never use default usernames and/or passwords. The network infrastructure security policy should define password length and complexity requirements.
Use at least two authenticated NTP sources to maintain a consistent time among network devices.

(U) Secure Protocol Standards + Strong Cryptography

Follow NIST SP 800-131A guidance for cryptographic algorithm and key lengths when performing remote management of network devices, (e.g., transition to 2048-bit DH modulus for SSH key agreement and 2048-bit RSA certificates for SSH authentication).
When using SNMP, use SNMPv3 with encryption enabled and/or encapsulate all SNMP traffic in an IPsec tunnel.
All IPsec VPNs should conform to IETF standards and NIST SP 800-131A guidance. Employ IETF secure protocol standards where possible.
Invoke the FIPS 140 evaluated crypto engine in the network device, and configure algorithm selections that were validated through an NDPP evaluation. (Refer to the configuration guidance from the manufacturer to make these selections).

(U) Secure Logging

Use a remote audit server (e.g., Syslog server). Protect the integrity and confidentiality of audit data through establishing an IPsec VPN connection between critical network devices and an audit server.
Ensure that all network infrastructure devices create an audit event when configuration changes are applied, when operating system firmware is upgraded, and when the device is rebooted.
Ensure that logs are reviewed on a regular basis.

3. (U//FOUO) For further information, please contact your IAD Client Advocate. Military commands/services/agencies should call 410-854-4200, and Civil and Intelligence agencies should call 410-854-4790.